Monday, March 30, 2020
The Hazards Of Smoking Essay Is there anyone who does not know someone who smokes? Everyone has a family member, friend, or co-worker who smokes. They have chosen to smoke, but by just being around them you are also smoking, only you have not made that choice. Before you choose to take this risk you should think about what may happen to your body. There are many factors that you should take very seriously; smoking is a hazardous habit because it leads to addiction, disease, and high-risk pregnancy. As advertisements have shown on commercial on television that smoking is a way to relax and to be cool by smoking cigarettes, they never show you the negative side of it. For example, addiction is one of the bad side effects and it is caused by nicotine. Once you inhale the cigarette you will then feel or want the need for another one, and you may have different personalities and change because of the addiction. You may get more grouchy and violent behavior and need a cigarette to relax, but instead it is doing more damage. Researchers have found ways to control addictions and some have succeeded while many have failed. People at a younger age start to get addicted by the nicotine in the cigarette and this is where the problem starts. We will write a custom essay on The Hazards Of Smoking specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The hazardous of smoking lead to many fatal diseases and should convince people to quit their habit. First, a major reason why people should quit smoking is that many people are dying of cancer. For instance, the statistics say that in the United States six out of ten people are dying everyday due to lung cancer. This disease is killing people if it is not detected promptly. Another reason for quitting smoking is heart disease and its consequences. For example, many people suffer from heart failure, but even though they know about smoking and its dangers, they do not stop their habit until they become ill. Unfortunately, in many cases, people are at risk to live with heart complications for the rest of their lives. Lastly, another important reason for people to stop smoking is the risk of getting emphysema. This is also a deadly disease that affects their lungs and their whole respiratory system. These several reasons should prove to the smokers that this habit puts their health in d anger, and causes many diseases that lead to death. Unborn babies who have mothers who smoke are more likely to die of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The placenta joins the mother and the baby, which is where the baby gets food and oxygen. When a mother smokes the placenta does not work as well as it should. The babies are also more likely to be born early. Every time a woman smokes she is giving her child less food and oxygen, therefore, the baby can and maybe will not be wealthy. It is very easy for a pregnant woman to stop smoking when the people around her do not smoke. When a baby is born to a mother who smokes the baby will not grow well as it should. Studies show that smoking is an unhealthy habit and can not only hurt the mother but really hurt the baby as well. Because of smoking, smokers provide high risks in addictions, disease or risks in pregnancies. Smokers prefer their habit, rather than caring about this terrible problem. They avoid the consequences of smoking. As is often the case, smoking increases the hazardous of health and problems with themselves too.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Gm 545 You Decide (Economics) Essays Gm 545 You Decide (Economics) Essay Gm 545 You Decide (Economics) Essay Mr. President, Monetary and fiscal policy are two ways in which governments attempt to achieve full level of employment, economic growth, and price stability. As you are aware, fiscal policy decisions are made by the President and Congress and demand the use of government spending and taxation to influence the economy; the monetary policies are maintained by the Federal Reserve. After careful consideration of the advice of Economic Advisers and Federal Reserve consultants, I came to the following conclusions regarding economic recovery in The United States: * Executing Expansionary Fiscal Policy, increasing government spending, transfer payments (Social Security, unemployment compensation, and welfare payments) and decreasing taxes will lead to increased aggregate demand (Stone, 2008). Contrary to Ms. LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s advice to raise taxes and decrease government spending, and in accordance with Ms. Tanney, I recommend the opposite: decrease taxes and increase government spending. Government spending will, it theory, create new jobs as governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s consumption of services from construction industry increases. A good incentive for job creation would be offering tax credits to employers who hire new, unemployed workers. Decreased taxes, again in theory, will create more disposable enabling individuals and corporations to increase their consumption. Increased consumption leads to, again, increase in job creation, corporate profits, consumer confidence, and real GDP. On the monetary side, the government should: * Lower interest rate * Lower reserve requirements * Purchase government bonds in the open market. All these lead to expansionary monetary policy. I disagree with Ms. LopesÃ¢â¬â¢ opinion that The Fed should sell bonds, raise reserves, and leave interest rates. : To the contrary, purchasing bonds on an open market will increases the amount of money in circulation in the economy. When the Fed increases the money supply, it lowers the interest rate and increases the quantity of goods and services demanded at any given price level. Stone, 2008). As suggested by Mr. Burke, lowering the interest rates and reserve requirement enables banks to lend more money to consumers at a cheaper rate since the access to reserve capital more accessible. Lower interest rates encourage consumption and investment. As the economy recovers and moves towards full employment, the government should reconsider expansionary measures, since, in the long run, these measures can lead towards budged deficits and increased inflation. References: Gerald W. Stone, 2006, Core Economics federalreserve. gov/ www. investopedia. com
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Management- Strategies - Essay Example The growth of the specialty discount industry is attributed to the wide selection of merchandise that the stores carried and their everyday low pricing strategy. Full line chains perceived this segment as Ã¢â¬Å"category killersÃ¢â¬ since their merchandise line-up could not offer the same amount of shelf space and square footage to any one product category. Research shows that consumers are likely to find what they are looking for in specialty stores than they would in full line discount stores. Buying preferences and buying patterns of consumers also change more often (Gamble, p.957). The full-line discount segment is also growing faster than the U.S. economy. The entire retail discount industry was both rapidly going into consolidation through mergers and acquisitions, liquidation, and bankruptcy. Rivalry in this sector revolves around store location, pricing, and promotion. The advent of consolidation will make it easier for Wal-Mart to merge with or acquire smaller retail stores in the U.S and abroad. Considering that Wal-Mart is one of the leading stores in the industry, they have the bargaining power over their suppliers which in effect would give them pricing advantages over other retailers. If a Wal-Mart moves into a community, chances are the other retailers in that community, especially if they are privately owned are going to lose money and may even be forced to close down. SinceWal-Mart is the largest retailer in the United States and number 1 on the Fortune 500 list, they have the ability to lower their prices and therefore can force other retailers out of business because they can not match Wal-Marts low prices (Pereira et al, 2002). Business level strategies describes how firms outperform each other and enjoy such competitive advantage over time. Michael Porter identifies three generic strategies: cost leadership,differentiation, and focus (Dess & Lumpkin, 2002). From the 1940s to the 1970s, the cola industry was dominated by
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
International relation&the 2003 Intervention in Iraq - Case Study Example There was no the mandate of the United Nations; it was a policy that was used by the US administration to destabilize Saddam HusseinÃ¢â¬â¢s government. Consequently, when George Bush took office in 2001, he was determined to accomplish what his predecessor had started. President Bill Clinton had authorized the $97 million military aid to the Iraq opposition forces to topple Saddam Hussein and install the democratic government (Popular Social Science 1). After the first Gulf War in Iraq both the Clinton and the Bush administrations hoped that the imposition of economic sanctions and the no-flight zones in Iraq would result in a palace revolution by members of SaddamÃ¢â¬â¢s own Baath regime (Popular Social Science 1). This was not U.N. policy, however, but WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s own unilateral intention was to overthrow the regime in Baghdad and install a democracy in Iraq. From the above phenomena, we can depict that the second Bush Administration did not follow the channels of the United Nations to launch war; because there were concerns the deal could not be vetoed due to humanitarian concerns and could hinder the big plans right from the Clinton Administration. Additionally, in 2002 the Congress and the Senate of the United States had passed a resolution that gave the president more powers to invade any country without the mandate of the United Nations (Popular Social Science 1). From the above statement, it gives a clear picture the congress and the Senate were main bodies that empowered the Second Bush Administration to declare war without the authorization of the United Nations. Additionally, by 2002 the US was speaking in one voice on matters of foreign policy, thus, Bush used the proxy endorsement of the resolution of the congress and the senate to the launch war against Saddam Hussein. The United States is likely to attack another country unilaterally because there was a declaration made in1992 by the Department of the United States Defense. In this
Monday, January 27, 2020
How To Improve Customer Service Marketing Essay In todays competitive, fast-paced and global economy, financial service has placed increasing emphasis on customer service as a means of gaining competitive advantage (Sarah Cook, 1995). The nature and number of competitors and the ability of retailers, banks, government deregulation and other financial service companies to offer similar products at similar prices has led to increasing emphasis being placed on personal service as a means of adding value to customers. Providing an exceptional customer service is no longer an added benefit, is a necessity, customer who are not satisfied with the way they are treated can easily take their business elsewhere, exceptional service is accomplished by positively interaction through effective communication and relationship building. Exceptional customer service will bring unexpected result, whether you give a good customer service or poor customer, the people will tell other how they are treated (Renee, 2005). Customer service is about consciously building customer centred organisation where employees are focused on serving their customers both internal and external for sustained, profitable growth, (Michael, 2003). How well you communicate and establish relationship with your customer is the meaning of customer service, the relationship may not be long the instant relationship is customer service, moving away from an intense focus on product development to lay much emphasis on relationship development (K aren and Keith, 2006). Customer service is the key issue to any organisation which involves the entire staff member of the company from the executive to the least staff of any organisation for not losing their ground to the competitors, customer is the foundation of any business we must delight our customer to keep the business in existence. Also, purpose of any organisation is to create a customer, why not give the exceptional service to them in order to achieve the purpose of the organisation (Ian Linton, 1994). Customer service should not be seen as a necessary attachment to financial service, but an integral part of business, especially at it deals with customers the real assets of companies operation in a fiercely competitive market (Bryan and Merlin, 2002). 1.1Background This section will give the background of the research since the customer is the key of any business, it gives the importance of customer service in financial services, reasons for developing customer service, benefits of customer service to financial service, how to improve customer service, the research questions will be answered in the literature review. In the banking sector the customer service involves diverse of relationship between the providers and their customers especially personnel are tools in creation and provision of services quality service, they need to take care of the customer by meeting their needs and well satisfy, we must put customer first, listen to them, by listening to your customers and providing them with the products and services they really want, you can gain and keep your share of the market, solve their problems, it make you retain the customers, provide products and services to meet their need and be friendly with them, it includes service to the customer, delivery, operations, employee and management. In meeting customer need, banking sectors must manage product and service, delivery system, environment and people so as to provide an efficient and caring service getting things done appropriately and maintaining standard. Customer care and good service must be the work of all the staff from management le vel to all staff which brings together executive, marketing, operations and human resources management. Reasons for developing customer service The reason for customer service is controlled by customers, employees and a changing business environment, customer can be individual, household, group or organisation are aware of competitors in financial services or provider organisation and also of rising standard of service they are willing to give compare to service they receive therefore, expectation of consumer rise and become faulty finding of the quality of service they receive and so organisation can be never be less concerned. Also knowledge of cost and benefit from the existing customer compare to attract new customer draws companies attention to good customer service to existing customer, meeting their needs and complaint, developing long-term relationship, companies must understand that good customer service does not disagree with profitability. Looking after employee is also a chance for an organisation not place a target amount for them to meet capital base to the bank because employee is an internal customer, as organisation become larger they may also become anonymous and bureaucratic which dissatisfy the employee. Communication may deteriorate any relationship between customer and customer contact personnel, between customer contact staff, between management may suffer. Also in a recessionary climate, cost-cutting exercise, re-organisation and redundancy can impart on staff morale, motivation and performance. In spite of this company should realise that commitment to employees bring companies rewards and more benefit it also encourage employee participation. Another reason for developing customer service is the business environment, this create need for customer services, the business environment is typical economic, legal and technology which is not stable, recent deregulation in financial service has increased competition between providers, which provides more choice for the consumer. In this business environment banking sectors must emphasize operations and financial efficiency and focused more on product and market strategy. Additionally, they can focus more on customer service (quality in the corporate and marketing strategies). Exceptional customer service must be seen as tool to achiever differentiation and a competitive advantage, so it has become integral direction and planning for BankPHB. Customer service is such an outstanding issue that no major financial service provider can overlook whilst other are improving the quality of service levels. Benefit of Customer Service In the absence of focus on customer service and quality financial service organisation will face challenges and complaints from both employees and customer, which will affect the sales and profitability of the organisation and associated financial and other costs. Also, a number of unsatisfied customers will complain and tell others, generating unfavourable word of mouth, publicity and some may move to competitors. However, with focus on customer service e and organisation can expect a number of benefits such as: Customer Loyalty: Taking good care of existing customer can cause repeat and increase business and lead to attract new customer from positive word of mouth to others by existing customer communication. Customer retention is more cost effective, loyalty to the company will make the customer to be an advocated that create a reputation for being a caring customer oriented company. Increased opportunities to sell: Understanding and complete product knowledge and sales techniques among employee together with develop interaction and rapport with customer enable staff to know customer needs and suggest appropriate product and service that will satisfy the customer. Employee satisfaction: When employee is taken care is increased job satisfaction, morale and commitment to the company good employer employee relationship and increased staff loyalty which contribute to reducing the rate of staff turnover and the associated costs of recruitment, selection and training activities. Happy commitment and competent employees will also make fewer mistakes and this lead to fewer complaints from customer and contribute to cost savings and increase the profitability of the organisation. Also good customer service improve the corporate quality image and provide protection form price competition, above all successful service leads to reduce costs such as mistakes, operating and advertising and promotions, and increase productivity and sales, market shares, profitability and business performance. HOW TO IMPROVE CUSTOMER SERVICE Changing nature of customer service BankPHB needs to change or improve the traditional way they do business with their customer, using sales representative as the only means of increase their capital base is risky, is seen as public humiliating to the representative, telling the representative to get certain deposit to the bank or get fired what is needed for BankPHB and other financial service provider in Nigeria like other financial services in United Kingdom is to inject innovation to life-blood of the organisation so that it becomes part of its very being, such as telephone banking service, effective internet banking service this focus on speed, convenience, quality and service for the customer and less work for the employee. Also BankPHB needs to be more customer-focused than product focused. Creating customer-centric systems BankPHB must be willing to change the policies which has become blueprint that sales representative or marketer should bring deposit less than that they will be sacked the prospect of customer centric can be very great, this system may hurt initially, but is a good prospect. Business essential and top management involvement: BankPHB must understand that it is a clear that unless there is a business essential for customer retention and top management is fully committed to customer service there is little chance to success. Customer orientation need to accustom the organisation mission, vision, value and objectives it needs to be both executives and senior managers word and actions Service strategy and goals: To be successful in competitive market and a customer focused organisation, BankPHB must have a clear strategy and a set of specific and measurable goals for service improvements People development: Training and development is an essential in promoting customer service philosophy, there must be often training and development for the staff and customer which company can benefit because this will enhance their attitude towards the customer in a positive way their behaviour, knowledge and skill, and make the organisation more flexible, proactive and customer focused in the face of strong competitor, the quality of leadership in an organisation is an indicator to success. Communication: Communication is life-blood of an organisation to sustain and develop a service initiative, effective communication about customers, competitor and the best practice in customer service can create a positive change to BankPHB. The development of communication media to convey the service philosophy is a vital means of creating awareness of the organisation, communication can be verbal or written Reward and recognition: Organisation with best practice provides a motivating environment for their customers and employee b rewarding and recognising the employee and the customer for their contribution to achievement of the organisation and implores them to do more. Customer-driven process: BankPHB must do business with its customer in a way that matches the customers needs not its own. Changing customer expectation Because of the technology consumers expectation are high they want better service which will give them satisfaction, they want greater choice and will not be sold to or manipulated. Value for time BankPHB and all other banks in Nigeria must value the time of their customers by providing self service such as effective cash machine, where you can withdraw your money 24hours without long queue in the banking hall an effective internet banking sitting at home pay bills, check your account balance and telephone banking if customer has any issue to clarify is easy to do on telephone than going to the bank waiting for the Manager to call head office for clarification which can take two to four days it is time consuming, the process of value for time resulted to easy customer and employee satisfaction. Know your customer rights Customers know their rights they tend to be unsatisfied if is violated and complain, majority of BankPHB customers complain about loan promised to give them is their right, to get loan without security if they have good records, they likely to make their opinion known if they violate this right. BankPHB must keep to the right of customers. Technology One of the greatest changes that can improve customer service in BankPHB is technology, checking account balance on internet, pay bills, open account, debit and credit alert via phone the use of technology can potentially revolutionise BankPHB relationship with customer, bank representative can visit customer input data via computer and print out cheque, use technology to wish the customer wishes on their memorable days like wedding anniversary, birthday it gives customer existed. Technology gives customer self service. What is customer service? Ability to provide an exceptional service is a perquisite of both attracting new customers and retaining the existing customers, but customer service is the perception of the customer to the service given, and the perception is based on their expectation, if a customer receives service better than the expectation is excellent service, but if customer receives less than the expectation is bad service. To provide excellent service BankPHB must exceeds customer expectations under-promise, over deliver, keep to promise never guarantee what cannot be delivered, to win customer today BankPHB needs to delight and astound the customers with products and services that beyond their expectations. Customer experience The main concern of great service organisation today is on the total customer experience. The customer experience of the organisation based on the effective communication/marketing efforts its package and interaction with employees as well as its products or services. Financial service provider in United Kingdom Barclays Bank train their staff to help customer with all their needs such as loan even when you do not need it they will advise you also on insurance which can be of benefit to you and the entire family so that the ethnic of Barclays is brought to life by their staff as they know customer is the key of the business. Developing a relationship There must be mutual relationship between the customer and service provider and the way this relationship is managed is pivotal to achieving excellent services. Relationship has become more important in financial services even know your customer by their name. BankPHB customers must be seen as value important as part of the bank not seen as different account to the organisation. Theodore Levitt of the Harvard Business School relates giving good service with building a long-term relationship, or relationship marketing He says: ..the sale merely consummates the courtship, at which point the marriage begins. How good the marriage is, depends on how well the seller manages the relationship. The quality of the marriage, determines whether there will be continued and expanded business or troubles and divorce Embracing change One thing that constant in life is change a successful companies will sustain competitive advantage by transforming their businesses rather than maintaining the traditional way of doing business, that is finding a new way of doing things both for and with customers BankPHB must embrace change through technology by operating 24 hours banking service, getting feedback from customer to help them improve on their service and customer loyalty and satisfaction to the employee. Contact centres: Is a way of reaching to customer know their need meet their needs 24 hours such as email written as well as telephone request, ease of contact to the service provider, convenience and speed of service are the main benefit of contact centre for the customer. Some financial sectors are using contact centre policy as a marketing tool. The internet: Is another change to delight our customer if offer them greater speed and choice, 24 hours a day, it enables them to market more quickly and gather direct customer feedback to develop better products and customer loyalty, retailing on the internet is already giving customers a sense of being in control, accessing your balance, pay bills, this has made financial services rethink how they communicate with customers, what they understand markets to be, how they segment and how they plan and advertise their products and services as well as the level of service they provide. Nevertheless, BankPHB website needs to be integrated with the rest of the customer strategy in order to maintain brand synergy. Customer relationship management (CRM) The process of setting up a customer service infrastructure using contact centre and internet technology is good start to become customer focused than product focused, Customer relationship Management offers opportunity to manage their customers relationship, because the more information a company has about the customer better, CRM strategies is to identifying desirable customer segments, micro or individual on one to one basis and developing integrated programmed that maximize both value to the customer and lifetime value of customer to the financial services profit enhancing and customer retention. It can also assist to identify sales prospects from existing or potential customer this management serves as an intermediary between the service provider and the user with this management BankPHB can be a better financial service amongst its competitor and known globally. 1.2 Problem area discussion One of the major problems most financial services are facing is how to manage their customers is the formulation and delivery of their proposition to customers (Bryan and Merlin, 2002). In a customer service strategy for a company, there are often significant changes required in the corporate culture, employee training, technology infrastructure and measurement system, this changes is associated with investment of resources and personal commitment depend on the good leadership of the executive management. Excellent customer service will only be considered a critical success factor if senior management demonstrate their involvement in terms of time, money effort, commitment, persistence and visibility (Sarah, 1995). BankPHB customers (both internal and external) are not satisfy with the service provided lack of commitment from the senior management, employee such as marketers are left alone to get deposit into the bank which is quite frustrating for the employee due to this the expectation of the customer are not met, let us assume that the senior executive of the business understand the expectation and perceptions of the customer regarding service, which is based on personal experience with the staff or face to face discussions and a sense of perception issues that exist in the minds of target consumers and frontline, service delivery staff. Also, Executive manager have an intimate understanding of customer expectation and perceptions and have ensured that service standards are relevant and meaningful in marketplace, the culture of the organisation must aligned with the objectives. The company resources is not focused on service standards BankPHB promised customer if you domicile your salary account for three month you will be given loan, after three month the expectation is not met due to this the customers are dissatisfied and willing to take their account to another bank. This is misdirected marketing which creates both explicit and implicit promises in the mind of the customer, when these promises are not fulfilled, customer satisfaction will suffer (Bryan and Merlin 2002). 1.3overall research purpose Looking at the above discussion, how to help BankPHB engender and sustain customer focus, the purpose of this research is the importance of customer service in an increasingly competitive environment and how effective customer service can help BankPHB enter into global market and the implication of increasing customer expectation and changes in trading patterns exposed. To address this point above, two research questions are drawn to explain the reason for this research R Q 1 How can R Q 2 how did you rate the staff behaviour at BankPHB? 1.4 delimitation The distance between the researcher and case study financial service and time constraint, also the compilation of the questionnaires, the feedback from the staff may be characterized with similarities and prejudice because management might have influence on their feedback of the questionnaire. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Improve customer service by technology Technology can be used to improve the quality of customer service by making easier for service provider to respond to customers request and satisfy customers needs, also with right equipment, this technology provide customer with a 24 hours response service this maintain high level of customer loyalty. Technology can contribute immensely to customer service in this area. Reliable equipment operation Customer will be very satisfy if there is reliable operation of their equipment to maintain their competitive business performance; a rapid quality response to service request is vital, a bank cash-dispensing system must be constantly available, technology helps customer to operate on their own business effectively and deliver high standards of service to their customer. Better account control The financial service wants to improve account control, technological links not only provide the customer with higher standards of customer service, they help to strengthen relationships with the customer and prevent competitors from taking over. Service staffs rely on information The more an organisation know about its customers the better service it can deliver, customer databases can be invaluable in helping customer service staff quickly provide advice and guidance to customer quickly Consistent local service a large customer spread over a wide geographical territory and dealing with a financial service through a network of local branches expects a consistent standards of service, if the company does not have the resources to offer the same level of service in each branch it must find a way of centralising and allocating its resources so that customer can be offered that consistency and satisfy. THE ELEMENT OF CUSTOMER SERVICE Customer care for the external customer requires an organisation to pay attention to its products/services, delivery systems, delivery environment technology and employees which are highly interdependent. Product/Service range: This includes both basis and augmented services Gronroos (1987), this is based on the basic or core financial service, may be a current account with associated services which are needed to facilitate consumption of the core services e.g. ATM and another service which are not required but facilitate the service and differentiate with other competitors. The greater service offering includes how the service is delivered and the relationship between a bank and its customers which can be the accessibility of the service, customer participation in the process e.g. use of ATMs and relationship between employees and customers, system and customers and the physical environment and customers. Delivery Systems:- Delivery systems and procedures must be operate effectively and efficiently, responsive and reliable in order to avoid queuing in the banking hall, Silverstro, Fitzgerald, Johnson and Voss, (1992) refer to three types of service delivery, professional services are described as few transactions, highly customised services a process orientation, relatively long contact time, mass service is example of many customer interaction limited contact time and customization, product orientation with value being added. The level of direct interactions with service providers and customers in delivery process in known as service Encounters or moments of truth. This service encounters may take different forms, a customer wishing to make an enquiry may chooses an interaction with ATM, or bank employee by telephone, by email, face-to-face contact whichever contact the customer chooses especially coming in contact with the bank and its employees, the employee must for an impression of the bank and its service encounter also have an impact on employees in relation to their motivation, performance and job satisfaction and their rewards. Recent perspectives and research relating to service encounter are reported by Bitner (1990), Bitner, Booms and Tetreault (1990) and Larsson (1990). Delivery Environment: The delivery environment is another elements of customer service, the environment includes physical design and access aspects and also emotional or atmospheric impact, this involve customer and employees, physical design such as layout, furnishing, noise and music, space for cars, lighting temperature and comfort, most of banks are redesign open-plant to eliminate the barriers between customers and the staff (Greenland, 1994). Access aspects includes hours, availability, convenience of location and security, physical environment research has been carried out by Bitner (1990, 1992) she introduces the concept of servicescapes which may involve customers only e.g. (self service), employee only (remote service) or customer-employee relationship which is common is service delivery, she said environment must be conducive for customer satisfaction and employee pleasurable, environment lead to positive customer evaluations of service and desire to spend more time and m oney, on the other hand, unpleasant environment lead to avoidance. Technology: Technology is part of the whole service product, it facilitates customer-company exchange and increase service level, it also increases speed, efficient and accuracy for the employee and better personal service for customer. Employee:- The function of employee in customer service cannot be overlook, their personal qualities, ability to understand and satisfy customer needs. Gronross (1984a) discussed the outcome of quality of service encounters, the way the service is delivered is done by employee of the financial services this will include attitude and behaviour, appearance and personality, service-mindedness, accessibility and approachability of customer contact personnel. Edvardsson, Gustavsson and Riddle (1989) present four aspects of quality which affects customers perceptions: Technical, Integrative, Functional and outcome, while LeBlanc and Nguyen (1988) suggests that corporate image, internal organisation physical support of the service producing system, staff-customer interaction and degree of customer satisfaction all are customer service/quality. Parasuraman Zeithaml and Berry (1985:1988) suggested that he criteria used by consumer that are important in moulding their expectations and perception in ten ways: Tangible i.e. physical evidence, reliability: honouring promise, Responsiveness: readiness to proved service, Communication: telling customer what they need to know, Credibility: Trustworthiness, Security: physical and financial, Competence: skill and knowledge, Courtesy: polite, Understanding: knowing your customer needs, Access: easy to contact. MEASUREMENT OF CUSTOMER SERVICE Measurement of customer service can been seen as a different between consumer expectation and perception; Expectations are desires or wants, which people believe that service provider should give, Perceptions are consumer judgement about actual service performance or delivery, if there is shortcoming between predicted and perception there is service quality gap which the provider would like to close. Zeithaml and Parasuraman (1985) are influenced by four other shortcomings/gaps. Consumer expectation: (Management perceptions and consumer expectations) If customer expectation is low (both internal and external) the result might be in lower level of delivery service this is gap, gaps may be closed by market research and better communication between management and personnel. Management perceptions of Consumer expectations:- when customer needs are known, there may not appropriate service specification due to lack of resources, organisational constraints (such as promise to give loan) absence of management commitment to customer service. Service quality specifications: (actual service delivery) This gap is called service performance gap, when there is difference between management specification and service delivery due to variations in the performance of service personnel. The reason may be the employee is not willing to work or incompetence. Actual service delivery:- External communication about the service, this gap is when, what said about the service in external communication is different from the service deliver e.g. advertising therefore, it is important not to promise more than what can be deliver. 3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTION
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Developmentally Appropriate Practice Buzzwords or best practice? By Jocelyn Smrekar and Andrea Hansen Teachers and parents are sometimes fooled into thinking that children must learn to read by age 5, usually in kindergarten. Consider this example: Jamie has trouble reading in kindergarten. Her teacher says itÃ¢â¬â¢s because she only played in preschool. In first grade, Jamie is called learning disabled because she still doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t read. By third grade though, Jamie is reading fluidly with her peers. Have teachers cured Jamie of a disability? No!JamieÃ¢â¬â¢s reading development followed its own course and leveled into a lifelong skill and what teachers call Ã¢â¬Å"working at grade level. Ã¢â¬ Children develop at different rates in separate areas: physical, emotional, cognitive or intellectual, language, and social. Differences, including abilities and disabilities, affect the way and speed with which children develop skills. Genetic traits, temperaments, learning style, en vironment, cultural and racial expectations, and experiences influence learning. Some children learn to say words at 8 months, others not until theyÃ¢â¬â¢re almost 2 or older.Many children learn to walk at 9 months, while others wait until they are 15 to 18 months. Charts of developmental milestonesÃ¢â¬âwalking, talking, running, or stacking three blocks, for exampleÃ¢â¬âare based on averages. Parents and teachers frequently worry when a child doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a skill at the targeted time. Most often, skills develop according to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s interests and temperamentsÃ¢â¬âthat is, a childÃ¢â¬â¢s basic approach to people and events. Foundation for Further Learning Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) is a term coined by the National Association for the Education of Young Children.It describes teaching techniques that identify and foster the developmental needs of children, both individually and in groups (Bredekamp, 1987). DAP is a set of guidelines suggest ing curriculum content and practice serving children birth through age 8. Simply stated, these guidelines encourage early childhood programs to provide an educational environment that responds to the needs and interests of children. In that environment, trained teachers use observation to plan for the class and the individuals in it. In DAP classrooms, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s play is the primary vehicle for learning.This article will focus on DAP in school settings, prekindergarten through third grade. DAP deals with all the levels and stages children grow through, building a strong foundation for future learning. Children remember, classify, repeat, and modify their experiences as they learn about the world and the people in it. For example, Zach, age 6, is eager to put together a puzzle with 100 pieces. He has experience with puzzlesÃ¢â¬âfirst with five-piece wooden puzzles in a frame, then with cardboard floor puzzles, and finally with boxed 60-piece puzzles.He knows that the pictur e on the outside of the box will be a guide as he separates the straight-edged pieces from the curved ones. He locates the four corners, looks for matching colors, and after 45 minutes of concentrated effort, completes the puzzle. He has used his past experiences to build new ones that include abstract tasks like classifying, matching, counting, sorting, identifying, and experimenting. He has improved his small motor skills, increased his ability to concentrate on a complex task, and learned the virtue of tenacity, sticking to the task until completion.ZackÃ¢â¬â¢s alert teacher notes his success and plans new ways to challenge his skills and foster new interests. A teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding and use of DAP are keys to educational success. Learning experiences in a DAP classroom Children are active learnersÃ¢â¬âthey need opportunities to investigate and explore with objects, materials, and equipment in order to construct a base of information about their world. Through first hand experiences, children are able to connect what they already know with new, more complex information.Teachers who use DAP in their classrooms provide opportunities for children to interact with a variety of materials. They offer uninterrupted time to actively explore not only intellectual skills, but also social, emotional, physical, and language skills. Specific teaching techniques include asking open-ended questions, modeling, demonstrating, exploring, coaching, and direct instruction. These techniques extend learning and guide children to skill mastery (Bredekamp and Copple, 1997). Young children learn best and most when they actively and playfully explore materials and activities, using all their senses.Developmentally appropriate classrooms are set up so individuals or groups of children can become directly involved with materials. Children move between free or spontaneous play and organized play. In free play, for example, a puppet show evolves into a performance by childr en in dress-up clothes. In organized play, children might chart the favorite fruits of class members. Role of Play A central issue in DAP is the role of play in the curriculum. Because adults donÃ¢â¬â¢t depend on play to learn, they tend to dismiss it as a pleasant time spent without profit. In children, however, play is an essential part of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s education.Sometimes called childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s work, play supports a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development by providing the tools, equipment, and interpersonal experiences that help children grow. Through play, children acquire information, master activities, use concrete materials as symbols, organize previous learning, learn perseverance and focus, solve problems, and develop creativity. Are Children Really Learning? While many teachers agree that DAP helps children develop cognitive, social, emotional, language, and physical skills, parents often ask, Ã¢â¬Å"Is my child really learning? All I see is play. Ã¢â¬Å"Standardized tests given after second grade to children in both DAP and traditional classrooms have revealed little difference in general reading skills (Kostelnik, Soderman, and Whiren, 1993). Children in DAP classrooms scored significantly higher in tests of vocabulary, reading comprehension, expressive language, and reading and writing mechanics in context. In standardized tests of math, the two groups showed similar scores in overall math skills, but the DAP children scored significantly higher in conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills than children in traditional classrooms.Children who had been in DAP classrooms for five years scored significantly higher in reasoning and problem-solving skills. Most importantly, children in DAP classrooms reported great enthusiasm for school and high involvement in the learning process. What Does a DAP Classroom Look Like? The physical setup of a DAP classroom indicates how learning takes place. The teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s desk is usually in an inconspicuous pl ace, not in the front of the room. Student desks, if provided at all, are clustered into learning centers. Most often, long tables replace individual desks, encouraging cooperative group work.Room arrangements and traffic patterns may change throughout the year as children grow and change intellectually, and they meet specific educational goals. Another difference in DAP classrooms is the way textbooks and worksheets are used. Often in traditional classrooms, printed materials are the primary source of instruction; teachers dictate the use of textbooks, worksheets, and other teaching materials. In a developmentally appropriate classroom, children learn through materials that are concrete, real, and relevant to their lives.In a kindergarten class that is studying insects, for example, the classroom is rich with pictures, colorful field guides, and posters. It may also have an ant farm with magnifying glasses, a box of silk worms spinning cocoons, a tomato plant with resident praying mantis, and a butterfly house. Children are encouraged to collect insects and sort them by size, color, function, or benefits to humanity. They use math skills like counting, estimating, and graphing in the daily routine. They have opportunities to draw and paint their impressions of insects as well as to sing and act out the metamorphosis of caterpillar to butterfly.In a DAP classroom textbooks are resources, not the primary source of information. All equipment and suppliesÃ¢â¬âincluding manipulatives, construction materials, art music, and role-playing propsÃ¢â¬âare accessible to the children as they explore and discover answers and new questions. Teachers support learning by setting up centers and providing the materials and guidance necessary for the children to learn. DAP as Best Practice Teachers who have adopted developmentally appropriate practices consider each childÃ¢â¬â¢s uniqueness and skill level when planning activities.Allowing children to progress through the stages of development at their own rates is the best way to build the foundation for future learning. This philosophy is reflected in the classroom environment and activities planned. Learning takes place naturally, because it is child-centered and relevant. Children are constantly learning, building on what they know to create new ways of thinking and seeing their world. Isenberg, J. and N. Quisenberry. Ã¢â¬Å"Play: A necessity for all children,Ã¢â¬ Childhood Education, 64 (3), 138-145, 1988. Statements of Developmentally Appropriate Practice Space and Furnishings 1. Indoor spaceChildren need sufficient space that is well lit and has a comfortable temperature for learning and playing. Indoor space that is well maintained and in good repair sends a message to the young child that is welcoming and inviting. 2. Furniture for routine care, play and learning Children need appropriate furnishings to meet the demands of their daily schedules. Basic furniture such as cots, tables and c hairs should be sturdy and appropriate to the size of the children in the group in order for children to be comfortable, have proper body support, and focus on learning, playing, and routine activities rather than their own discomfort.Caregivers need easy access to routine care furnishings, such as cots, in order to maintain proper supervision and provide smooth transitions between activities. 3. Furnishings for relaxation and comfort Children need space and opportunity to relax and rest. Soft furnishings and toys allow children opportunities for relaxation and comfort. Cozy areas provide a space for quiet activities to occur and should be protected from active play so children can snuggle, daydream and lounge. 4. Room arrangement Creative room arrangement promotes a child's positive self-image and encourages a wide variety of age appropriate activities.Well-defined interest centers where materials are accessible help children to understand about organization and returning materials to their proper place. 5. Space for privacy Some children experience unacceptably high levels of stress when exposed to constant activity and interaction. Places where children can escape from the pressures of group care promote positive self-esteem. Providing a child with opportunities, space, and time to be alone can contribute to positive classroom behavior. 6. Child related display Every child needs to know that others value his/her play or work.Artwork or other individual work that is created by the children should be displayed in the classroom at the child's eye-level. This promotes feelings of positive self-esteem and sends the message to the child that his/her work is valued and appreciated. 7. Gross motor play Children need daily opportunities to exercise large muscles, run in open spaces, and practice gross motor skills. (Safety is always a number one priority. ) Space to develop children's large muscles through a variety of play experiences should be made safe by providi ng adequate cushioning for fall zones.All play equipment should be safe and effective monitoring should be implemented to teach children safe play behavior and to safeguard against accidents. 8. Gross motor equipment Children need age appropriate stationary and portable equipment to promote a wide variety of skills that exercise large muscles while developing confidence and abilities. Equipment should be sound, sturdy, safe and accessible to children daily. Personal Care Routines 9. Greeting/Departing Parents and children need a warm, welcoming, and pleasant atmosphere to make the daily greeting and departing routine a happy one.Positive greetings help to promote the children's self-esteem and create a welcoming environment for parents. 10. Meals/Snacks Meals and snacks that follow USDA guidelines contribute to the health of children and provide a model for good nutritional habits for life-long practice. Proper hand washing along with careful food preparation teach children proper h ygiene and promotes sanitary conditions. 11. Nap/Rest Nap and/or rest time should be appropriately scheduled and supervised for the children in the group. Adequate separation of cots helps to prevent the spread of germs.Soft music or a soothing story helps to facilitate a peaceful rest time that is important in helping children to balance the day and renew their energy. 12. Toileting/Diapering Young children need appropriate supervision of the toileting process in order to care for basic needs and to teach the importance of good health habits. The schedule should be individualized. Provisions, such as soap and steps near the sink, should be convenient and accessible so that children can wash hands after toileting; this promotes self-help skills and good personal hygiene.Diapering should always be managed in a manner that promotes safety and good health practices. 13. Health practices Practicing preventive measures, such as washing hands after handling pets or wiping noses, help to e ducate children to achieve life-long health practices. Taking appropriate action when children are sick will minimize the spread of germs. 14. Safety practices Protecting children is critical in providing quality care, whether through adequate supervision or minimizing hazards both inside and outside. Caregivers should anticipate potential safety problems and demonstrate, model, and teach children safe practices.Language-Reasoning 15. Books and pictures The use of books and pictures is an important means of learning for children as they make sense of the world around them. Books, pictures, and language materials should be available in sufficient number both for independent use in a reading center and for use by a teacher with children in formal and informal settings. 16. Encouraging children to communicate Activities and materials that promote language development should be available for use throughout the classroom and the daily schedule. Teachers should establish an environment wh ere language exploration and usage is encouraged.17. Using language to develop reasoning skills Logical relationships and concepts should be presented in appropriate ways. Children learn through interaction with materials and people, both peers and adults, in the context of play and daily routines. Language provides the key tool for success and problem solving, as children are encouraged to talk through their thought processes. 18. Informal use of language Language is a way for children to expand understanding. Caregivers should engage children in give and take conversations for enjoyment and learning.They should support child-to-child conversations as well. Activities 19. Fine motor Children need a variety of age-appropriate and developmentally-appropriate toys and materials that they can manipulate with their hands and play with at will. These activities strengthen fine motor control while encouraging skill development that contributes to academic readiness. 20. Art Children benef it from exposure to child-initiated art activities that are open-ended and process oriented. Children's art should be respected and appreciated as individual, creative expression.Materials and opportunities to create art projects at a beginning and more advanced level should be available as children are developmentally ready for them. 21. Music/movement Music and movement are valuable means of learning. Children need a supportive environment that includes a teacher and a variety of tools to encourage their self-expression through music and related activities. 22. Blocks Block play, with a variety of blocks and accessories, allows children the opportunity to explore spatial, mathematical, and role-play possibilities.Powerful block play requires sufficient space in a protected area and time to expand on concepts and ideas. 23. Sand/water Sand and water play gives children the opportunity to learn concepts through active exploration with their senses. The addition of interesting props extends the learning potential offered through sensory play. 24. Dramatic play Dramatic play gives children the opportunity to discover an array of roles and responsibilities. It provides a vehicle through which they make sense of their world. Dramatic play is enhanced by space, time, props, materials, and supportive teachers.25. Nature/science Science and nature activities and materials foster curiosity and experimentation benefiting the young learner through direct experience and application to other areas of learning. Concept and observation skills are strengthened through science procedures. 26. Math/number Math skills, when introduced through appropriate hands-on methods, form a foundation for school readiness and later academic success. Math skills can be taught effectively through routines, schedule, and play activities. 27. Use of TV, video, and/or computerTV/video viewing and computer use tend to be passive in comparison to active involvement with materials and people. The use of each should be confined to subject material that is age-appropriate and mentally stimulating. Time limits encourage more active learning. Participation should not be required. 28. Promoting acceptance of diversity Children need to be exposed to the similarities and differences of people in positive ways through books, pictures, toys, materials, and interaction. This exposure encourages respect for others and lessens misunderstandings. Interactions29. Supervision of gross motor activities Caregivers should use gross motor activities as learning opportunities to promote positive social interactions and to encourage the development of skills and new experiences Diligent supervision of gross motor activities, whether indoors or outdoors, is critical to preventing accidents and insuring safe, active play. 30. General supervision of children (other than gross motor) During activities, caregivers must balance the level of supervision and control based upon the ages, abilities, and i ndividual needs of the children.Adequate supervision and awareness of the whole group is required for children's health and safety and in the recognition of accomplishments, which is necessary for children's emotional well-being. 31. Discipline The set-up of the environment, teacher expectations, available materials and opportunities, and daily schedule significantly impacts children's behavior in childcare. A classroom and curriculum geared toward developmentally appropriate practice will lead to generally good behavior that is the product of self-motivation rather than the result of punishment and control. 32. Staff-child interactionsCaregivers, who are nurturing and responsive, promote the development of mutual respect between children and adults. Children, who trust adults to provide for their physical, psychological, and emotional needs, develop their own sense of self-worth and self-esteem. 33. Interactions among children Because self-regulation, proper emotional expression, a nd positive social relationships are such essential skills for later schooling and life, teachers must encourage children to develop acceptable behaviors by providing a setting that encourages real opportunities for initiative taking and competence building.Providing opportunities for children to work and play together, to solve conflicts in productive ways, and to participate in group activities are ways teachers promote positive social relationships. Program Structure 34. Schedule Children thrive on having a consistent routine that provides a balance of activities designed to meet individual needs and foster physical, cognitive, social, and emotional growth. Best practice promotes a daily schedule with large amounts of time for play, smooth transitions between activities, and a balance between child-initiated and teacher-directed activities. 35. Free PlayWhen children are permitted to select materials and companions, and, as far as possible, manage play independently, they practic e making decisions and having control of their world. Caregiver intervention should be in response to children's needs, an invitation, or an opportunity to expand play activities. 36. Group Time In group-care situations, the focus needs to be on meeting individual needs and guiding children as they interact in small groups. Whole group activities should be kept to a minimum and limited to gatherings that follow the interests and involvement of the children. 37. Provisions for children with disabilitiesMeeting the needs of children with disabilities requires knowledge of routine care needs, developmental levels, individual assessments, and the integration of the children in ongoing classroom activities. It also requires the involvement and establishment of a partnership between the parents and staff in setting attainable goals that will assist the child in reaching his/her full potential. Rutter, M. Ã¢â¬Å"Family and school influences on cognitive development,Ã¢â¬ Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 683-704, 1985. Maybe little Janie can't read or count because her teacher can't teach.Or worse still, maybe the teacher doesn't know enough about English or math or history to teach the subject. Mischievous speculation? No. It happens, as a result of a historically flawed system in America of educating mostly average or below-average students to be public-school teachers. As evidence continues to pile up that American children are not learning the basics in school, critics are quick to blame the youngsters, their parents, the schools, television, or the curriculum. But increasingly, the focus has shifted to the teacher, the most vital link in the education process.Now, a four-month study at teachers colleges by The Washington Times indicates that the problem of unsatisfactory classroom learning is rooted in the early selection and education of students who say they want to be teachers. These students then are being taught by professors who differ wild ly on what teachers need to know. Ã¢â¬Å"Schools of education are cash cows to universities,Ã¢â¬ says Dean Edwin J. Delattre of the Boston University School of Education. Ã¢â¬Å"They admit and graduate students who have low levels of intellectual accomplishment, and these people are in turn visited on schoolchildren.They are well-intentioned, decent, nice people who by and large don't know what they're doing. Ã¢â¬ Mr. Delattre is one of the harshest critics of schools of education. Ã¢â¬Å"It would be possible in terms of the quality of their research, the significance of their research, and the quality of their instruction to give an intellectual justification for perhaps three dozen of them Ã¢â¬â certainly no more than 50,Ã¢â¬ he says. There are about 1,300 schools nationwide teaching students to be teachers. Roughly 2 1/2 million public-school teachers are responsible today for the education of 46 million children in kindergarten through high school.Although many teach ers perform well, a significant number are products of an entrenched training system that almost guarantees mediocrity in the classroom. New initiatives are under way in some of the preparatory schools and colleges, but, for the most part, the old ways and faddish new ways are still shaping the teachers of tomorrow. To become a public-school teacher, graduates have to be certified by the state. A college student must take required courses, do a stint at student teaching, and pass a series of general-knowledge examinations.The passing scores for these tests vary from state to state but tend to be fairly low. Curiously, many aspiring teachers never get in front of a classroom until their final days in college Ã¢â¬â an experience that sometimes persuades many to seek other careers. A major in education has long been considered an easy route to a college degree. Elementary education majors were especially easy to spot on any campus. They were the ones cutting out letters of the alpha bet to make posters while the English majors worried over a paper on Shakespeare's treatment of religious themes. Rigorous academic training was seldom demanded.Ã¢â¬Å"You just had to love kids to become a teacher,Ã¢â¬ says J. Michael Davis, dean of the School of Professional Studies at 105-year-old East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania. Thirteen years ago, it was possible to graduate from East Stroudsburg with a major in elementary education without ever taking a math class, Mr. Davis recalls. Twenty years ago, some University of Maryland campuses gave short shrift to reading instruction. Serious concerns about teacher training surfaced in 1983 with the publication of Ã¢â¬Å"A Nation at Risk,Ã¢â¬ a landmark national report on the state of America's educational system.It found that too many teachers had poor academic records and low scores on tests of cognitive ability. Students who went into teaching programs scored below nearly all other majors on college entrance exam s, then graduated not knowing enough about the subjects they were teaching. Not much has changed in 15 years. Anyone who believes that the problem of unqualified teachers is overblown or confined to a couple of subject areas such as math and science has only to look at the experience of a New York state school district last spring when it tried to fill 35 teaching vacancies.The Connetquot district on Long Island got 758 applications in response to an advertisement. District officials decided to narrow the pool by asking applicants to take a short version of a multiple-choice reading comprehension test taken from the state's old 11th-grade Regents English exams. Just 202 applicants correctly answered at least 40 of the 50 questions. Such incidents keep teacher education in the public consciousness and on the radar screens of elected officials at the state and federal levels. Initially, state legislators turned to higher salaries to try to attract higher-caliber students.From 1981 to 1997, average salaries for public-school teachers rose from $17,209 to $38,611. That's for what is essentially a 180-day school year plus in-service days spread over nine months. Then, lawmakers linked salary increases to policies aimed at raising standards such as requiring new teachers to have more education and raising the passing scores prospective teachers must attain on standardized tests such as the National Teacher Examinations and its successor, Praxis. The teachers colleges responded with talk of Ã¢â¬Å"restructuringÃ¢â¬ teacher education, and some institutions actually did move to raise admissions and curriculum standards.East Stroudsburg has raised entry standards and toughened course requirements. Students still need to take 60 hours in general education, but they no longer have a smorgasbord of courses to choose from. The college recently raised the grade point average needed to get into elementary education from 2. 5 to 2. 75. In 1996, Boston University began to ta rget only teacher applicants with high SAT scores, resulting in a 17 percent drop in the inquiry pool. As a result, prospective teachers in last fall's freshman class had average SAT scores of 1,276, compared with 964 for all 85,442 self-declared education majors who took the 1997 SAT.George Mason University decided in 1989 that teachers should get a bachelor's degree first and then train to teach in a fifth-year graduate-level program. The Fairfax County school says it annually rejects half the applicants for elementary education training because they don't meet admissions standards. It takes a 2. 7 GPA to get into the University of Maryland College of Education at College Park and a 3. 0 to prepare for special education, a five-year program. Ã¢â¬Å"We're not getting the best and the brightest kids,Ã¢â¬ says University of Maryland Dean Willis D. Hawley. Ã¢â¬Å"We're getting some of the best and brightest.Some kids are really smart. What there aren't anymore are kids who are real ly dumb. Ã¢â¬ But the perception lingers, even among insiders, that a lack of academic rigor continues to plague the nation's teacher training programs. Ã¢â¬Å"The truth is, students get into colleges of education Ã¢â¬â particularly early-childhood education majors Ã¢â¬â because it's the easiest thing they can get into,Ã¢â¬ says John E. Stone, professor of education at East Tennessee State University and founder of the Education Consumers Clearinghouse Ã¢â¬â an Internet source for parents, taxpayers and policy-makers.Ã¢â¬Å"Here at ETSU, the schools of education are kind of at the bottom of the pecking order,Ã¢â¬ he says. Ã¢â¬Å"Students flunk out of nursing or business and come to Ed to get some kind of college degree. Ã¢â¬ Since the concept of a formalized vocational training program for teachers was established nearly 160 years ago, that training has combined lessons in subject matter with courses in methodology, or Ã¢â¬Å"how to teach. Ã¢â¬ The training a lso has included theories of child development and practical field experience. From the start, teaching preparation emphasized methods of teaching at the expense of the content of courses.Often the subject matter would be watered down and presented in courses tailored especially for teachers, instead of requiring teachers to take the same math, for example, that liberal arts majors were required to take. Ã¢â¬Å"Their focus is process, and that hasn't changed,Ã¢â¬ says C. Emily Feistritzer, who as president of the private Washington-based National Center for Education Information has conducted a number of studies of teachers and teaching. Ã¢â¬Å"Resistance to change is extraordinarily high at the same time there is a high level of conversation about change.Ã¢â¬ Many critics of teacher training programs argue that a solid grounding in the liberal arts with a concentration in the subject to be taught is all that is needed to teach math, science, history or English. But Mr. Hawley at Maryland's College of Education disputes that. Chances are, he argues, that a rocket scientist would make a terrible science teacher. Ã¢â¬Å"You have to have the ability to transfer knowledge,Ã¢â¬ he says. That ability generally has to be learned, says Dean Gary R. Galluzzo of George Mason's Graduate School of Education.He believes that only 5 percent of the population might be Ã¢â¬Å"bornÃ¢â¬ teachers, while 65 percent have knowledge but need to learn how to impart it. Boston University recently doubled the amount of time its prospective teachers are required to spend in math class. It also requires juniors and seniors in education to take an ethics course that exposes them to the icons of Western civilization. Ã¢â¬Å"We try to make the fact that teachers are deeply involved in character and values formation obvious to our students,Ã¢â¬ says professor Kevin Ryan, who teaches an introductory education course.Ã¢â¬ `What is the right thing to do? Ã¢â¬Ë is a question teachers need to ask the young. And we want them to see that America has a moral heritage. Ã¢â¬ Adds Charles L. Glenn, chairman of BU's Department of Administration, Training and Policy Studies, who teaches a course on the social and civic contexts of education: Ã¢â¬Å"Teachers have to be moral exemplars to students. We raise questions that are usually raised in a religious context. On what basis can you say certain behaviors are right or wrong? I don't know how you can send someone who hasn't grappled with those questions out to teach a 7-year-old.Ã¢â¬ Schools of education, reacting to social and political pressures, are perceived to be more interested in promoting equity, diversity and social justice than in transmitting knowledge. And many of the educational practices they encourage are often criticized as fads. East Stroudsburg's administrators, for example, proudly describe their teacher training program as focused on the learner and on Ã¢â¬Å"outcomes,Ã¢â¬ committed to Ã¢â¬Å"developmentally appropriate practice,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"modeling,Ã¢â¬ inclusion, and Ã¢â¬Å"hands-onÃ¢â¬ and cooperative learning.These are the buzzwords and the practices that permeate nearly all of the nation's teacher training institutions. Ã¢â¬Å"Schools of education are currently the origins of our problems, not their solution,Ã¢â¬ says E. D. Hirsch Jr. , professor of English and university professor of education and humanities at the University of Virginia. Testifying before Congress, Mr. Hirsch sharply criticized what's known as Ã¢â¬Å"developmentally appropriate practiceÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â the philosophy that a child should not be pressured to learn anything until he signals that he is ready and receptive.Ã¢â¬Å"The doctrine,Ã¢â¬ he said, Ã¢â¬Å"is drummed into almost all teachers who take early-education courses. The intention is to ensure caring treatment for young children, yet the ultimate effect of the doctrine is to cause social harm. To withhold demanding content from young children between preschool and third grade has an effect which is quite different from the one intended. It leaves advantaged children [who get knowledge at home] with boring pablum, and it condemns disadvantaged children to a permanent educational handicap that grows worse over time. Ã¢â¬Å"The schools that hire new teachers appreciate the increased attention college and university training programs are giving to practical experience. Ã¢â¬Å"Teaching colleges are getting a lot better,Ã¢â¬ says James Dallas, a Fairfax County support coach for new teachers. Ã¢â¬Å"They have begun to structure their programs to the needs of the school systems. Ã¢â¬ Where practical experience used to come in the senior year, it now begins at many places in the freshman year, where it can serve to weed out those who discover that life in an elementary classroom is not what they thought it would be.While there is general agreement among the deans about the value of practical exp erience, they part company on the ideal program to train elementary teachers. Mr. Galluzzo of George Mason would opt for a solid general education foundation in an undergraduate or graduate program. Ã¢â¬Å"You should be required to take a liberal arts major of about 80 [semester hours] or two-thirds of the college experience for general education plus major combined.Then you should study the four core disciplines Ã¢â¬â math, science, history and English Ã¢â¬â roughly 15 credits each. Spend the other 20 hours getting smart in one of these areas. And in the undergraduate program, the other 40 credits are in learning to teach those things, because now you have something to say. Ã¢â¬ In many programs, a lot of the basic discipline has to be taught in the methodology classes because the prospective teachers don't know enough math or science to stand up in front of a class and teach, he says.One of his concerns is that too many future teachers take a concentration in psychology i nstead of English, math, science or history, thinking it will help them understand children. In fact, psychology is a subject they will never teach in elementary school. Ã¢â¬Å"What does it mean to know your subject? Ã¢â¬ asks Maryland's Mr. Hawley, whose background is in the liberal arts and political science. Ã¢â¬Å"You probably don't need to understand quadratic equations to teach fourth-grade math, but you ought to understand algebra and calculus. Ã¢â¬Å"
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Case study: Creedence Clearwater Revival Introduction Creedence Clearwater Revival (CCR) was an American rock band that gained popularity in the late 1960s and early 1970s (Lyrics Freak, 2010). Ã¢â¬Å"The group consisted of lead vocalist, lead guitarist, and primary lyricist John Fogerty, his brother and rhythm guitarist Tom Fogerty, bassist Stu Cook, and drummer Doug CliffordÃ¢â¬ (Lyrics freak, 2010). The foursome began early on as young teenagers and grew together. Throughout their time together there were many issues that arose that in the end led the group to disband. Cause of Demise CCR began their downward spiral that ended in disbanding in 1970; by 1972 the group had come to an end (Lyrics Freak, 2010). The cause of demise for the group entailed a lot of different factors. John Fogerty had taken business control of the group by 1971 and felt that a democratic vote would only cause problems, however the other band members felt they should have a say in things (Lyrics Freak, 2010). Cook and Clifford were not thrilled with the decisions that Fogerty was making, but ended up accepting what Fogerty offered (Lyrics Freak, 2010). Despite the differences that the members had with how things were going they continued on recording and touring. Ã¢â¬Å"Finally, on October 16, 1972 Ã¢â¬â less than six months later Ã¢â¬â Fantasy Records and the band officially announced the disbanding of Creedence Clearwater RevivalÃ¢â¬ (Lyrics Freak, 2010). Legal Issues Each went their separate ways. John began a solo career as a one-man band, but still was under contract with Fantasy to finish eight more records (Lyrics Freak, 2010). John was not thrilled with the way Fantasy was handling the contracts and was upset that they had the copyright to his work. In order for him to break the contract and be free John signed over his rights to CreedenceÃ¢â¬â¢s songs to Zaentz, the owner of Fantasy (Lyrics Freak, 2010). John fought with Zaentz over this and many other issues. One legal issue much that affected the whole group was that much of the money earned by Fogerty and Creedence was Ã¢â¬Å"lost in an offshore tax-shelter deal arranged by FantasyÃ¢â¬ (DeCurtis, 2005). The group took Fantasy to court and after much trial and tribulations CCR won a considerable judgment (DeCurtis, 2005). After John Fogerty left CCR and Fantasy he created an album in 1985 Ã¢â¬Å"Centerfield,Ã¢â¬ which had the song Ã¢â¬Å"The Old Man Down the RoadÃ¢â¬ on it (DeCurtis, 2005). Zaentz, from Fantasy, felt that he owned the copyright to that song because he felt it Ã¢â¬Å"was an illegal remake of Creedence's Ã¢â¬ËRun Through the JungleÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (DeCurtis, 2005). Zaentz sued Fogerty for $140 million Ã¢â¬Å"for plagiarizing himselfÃ¢â¬ (DeCurtis, 2005). The battle between Fogerty and Zaentz became childish with lashes back and forth. Fogerty began to create songs about Zaentz that were disrespectful and rude. After many arguments and legal battles Fogerty won. Cook and Clifford formed Creedence Clearwater Revisited and decided to sing some of the old songs. They had asked for John Fogerty to join them, but he refused (Lyrics Freak, 2010). Lawsuits between the band members began to ensue because John felt the others had no right to use the names of the band and songs (Lyrics Freak, 2010). Financial Issues Financial Issues were always a problem for the group since the beginning. Although there were a few years where they had financial gain overall the group struggled. When CCR disbanded Cook made a statement to the press saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Over the years John Fogerty has done everything he could to devalue Creedence Clearwater RevivalÃ¢â¬ ¦He owes the rest of us a fiduciary duty to protect, enhance and help [the band] grow on a business level. And we believe that he has violated thatÃ¢â¬ (Rolling Stone, 1997). Fantasy had made a deal with an offshore tax shelter, and according to Lyrics Freak (2010) the other members were not aware that John had signed off on this. This deal led to a downfall of finances for all of the members. The negativity that occurred between all parties led to distrust and the inability to work together. This negativity affected their work and before they disbanded the albums put out was not received well by the public, which brought in less revenue then desired (Lyrics Freak, 2010). Management Issues In 1964 CCR, formerly known as The Blue Velvets, signed with Fantasy Records (Lyrics Freak, 2010). From 1964 to 1970 the band had a good run of success under Fantasy, however dissension began to settle in the band and Fogerty took the reigns as business leader for the group (Creedence Online, 2009). Fantasy was the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s management, but Fogerty began making the main decisions for the group. Eventually the group decided to run as a democracy, which turned into chaos because everyone had their own ideas on how to manage the band (Creedence Online, 2009). Band Interpersonal Issues Dissension arose amongst the band members. Success was something they all sought after, but could not handle. Each had their own ideas on what should be done, but it was rare that all were in agreement in how things should play out. Tom Fogerty became upset at how the band was reacting to situations and in 1971 left the band for good (Creedence Online, 2009). This left John Fogerty, Stu Cook and Doug Clifford, the trio continued on but could not get along enough to keep the band going. They tried by putting together the album Mardi Gras and had also decided to attempt a U. S. tour (Lyrics Freak, 2010). Ã¢â¬Å"Hecklers reportedly pelted the band with coins at the final stop of the tour on May 22 in Denver. Finally, on October 16, 1972 Ã¢â¬â less than six months later Ã¢â¬â Fantasy Records and the band officially announced the disbanding of Creedence Clearwater Revival. Ã¢â¬ (Lyrics Freak, 2010). Conclusion The many issues of the demise of CCR should be learning points for other bands and managers. If I were the one who had discovered CCR and became their manager things would have been different. It is important to understand how each band member reacts to situations and as the manager to make sure everyone is on the same page. It seems that Fantasy did not do this and that John Fogerty had his own agenda as well. Although a democracy is needed and good sometimes, a fine line must be drawn in order to effectively manage a band. First off I would have made it very clear that as the manager I am working for CCR and that everyone does get an equal say, however what is best for the band should always be taken into consideration above what each person desires for themselves. Secondly conferences would have been held to ensure that everyone is on the same page. This is extremely important during long hours of recording and touring. People tend to get tired and do not always think clearly during stressful times, so a re-hashing of the goals the band has is important to keep peace. Thirdly when it comes to the bands money all should have a clear understanding of how the finances are allocated. Every member should have the right to viewing statements. So decisions like the offshore account would not occur. Contracts to protect the members would have this stated in them to offer fairness to every party. By being honest, communicative and having legal protection for all parties I feel that CCR may not have disbanded in such a terrible way. It is shameful that the group could not remain working together after the split. However in 1980 the four did play together for TomÃ¢â¬â¢s wedding lawsuits once again created an end of relationships amongst the group (Lyrics Freak, 2010). Even after the death of Tom John could not let bygones be bygones and still refused to play with former members Cook and Clifford (Lyrics Freak, 2010), References Lyrics Freak. (2010). Creedence Clearwater Revival: Biography. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from http://www. lyricsfreak. com/c/creedence+clearwater+revival/biography. html Creedence Online. (2009). Creedence Clearwater Revival History. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from http://www. creedence-online. net/history/ DeCurtis, A. (2005). John Fogerty Is Closer to Peace With a Label. The New York Times. Published: November 1, 2005. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from http://www. nytimes. com/2005/11/01/arts/music/01foge. html? ei=5088=a96cbcb6483ce99c=1288501200=1=rssnyt=rss=1182985952-kKlgvwEFB+csZpVxoY0czw