Monday, September 16, 2019

Arnolfini Wedding Portrai

In 1434, Flemish artist Jan van Eyck painted, signed, and dated his piece, the â€Å"Arnolfini Wedding Portrait. † This painting is believed to be of Giovanni di Arrigo Arnolflnl, an Italian merchant, and his wife Giovanna Cenaml and Is thought to stand as documentation of their marriage. While It may seem Ilke a simple dual-portrait, there are many subtle symbols Incorporated In the scene that enhance the portrayal of this couple. use of symbolism within the painting explains Its purpose, shows what this Renaissance couple values, displays social norms of the era, and relates to universal ymbols and basic human nature.The artwork hints towards its purpose through intricate symbolic meaning to be found within the details of the scene. A quite plausible interpretation of the painting is that it is an image of a wedding ceremony and it serves as verification of said marriage. In fifteenth century Flanders, marriages could easily have taken place in private locations, instead of in a church with an elaborate ceremony, and van Eycks signature on the painting is more than his name, it reads â€Å"Jan van Eyck was present† with the date of the painting, which indicates he ook the extra step to ensure that his presence was known.The eloquent handwriting of the signature, usually seen on formal documents, In addltlon to the fact that there Is an unnamed man accompanying van Eyck In the mirror's reflection whom Is likely the other, more official witness to this marriage which further proves this interpretation. Secondly, in the bottom left corner is a pair of shoes that have been slipped off, probably out of respect for being in a holy place or in the presence of a holy event, such as a wedding ceremony.Furthermore, the companion dog was not n there by accident, but instead represents faithfulness, fidelity, and love which are 3 immensely important qualities of a successful marriage. Lastly, on the intricate chandelier there burns only one solitary candle. A single flame burning in bright daylight symbolizes a bridal or possibly a devotional candle, a part of marriage ceremonies. The artist used symbols in the painting to subtly explain the purpose of the portrait, Just as other parts of this piece of artwork reflect the general era of the Renaissance.The style of the art and the way this painting was created embodies arts of the artlstlc Renaissance In Europe. Renaissance usually refers to the renewed interest in the classical arts and culture that sprouted from Italy. However, the Northern Renaissance (which van Eyck was a part of) was characterized by people's interest in observing the nature of our world and humans fit within that world. Northern artists had more focus on detail and this is very evident in van Eyck's painting. There is intense detail in this picture, from the scruff of the dog's fur to the flame of the candle.Another characteristic of the Northern Renaissance art was that there was emphasis on religious intensity . Within this painting, there are several religious symbols such as; the removed shoes (representing sanctity), the crystal prayer beads on the wall, and the Image of Saint Margaret (protector of women In childbirth) carved Into a high back chair near the bedside. These things skillfully represent the piety of the couple and Incorporate religious undertones Into a simple portrait. This portrait also contains details that allude to the fifteenth century ideas concerning marriage.Just the placement of the two figures within the room says sometnlng aoout tne value 0T gender roles aurlng tnls era. I ne woman, positioned slightly further into the room, towards the bed, symbolizes her role as a caretaker of the household. Ideas of women's rights during the this time were that the wives should support their husbands, while still living domestic, demure, stay-at- home lives. With the placement of Giovanni near an open window, the painting represents how a man's duties are outside the home, working and living with more freedom than women were allowed.Even their hand position gives information on their relationship. His hand being raised vertically represents a commanding position f authority, whilst she has her hand in a lower, horizontal pose which shows her as more submissive. However, the wife looks directly towards her husband, rather than down at the floor as lower class women would have. In the court life system that they are a part of, she is his equal, not his subordinate, and she displays it with her confident gaze. The man looks directly out at the viewer, stoic and calm, displaying his control.As a wealthy merchant, Arnolflni had the ability to have symbols of his wealth placed within the portrait; this allows people to understand the attitude of the ealthy and the part of the economic state during the Renaissance. Placed under the window is an orange which, without context, could mean nothing at all. However, fruit was expensive at this time and oranges wer e especially uncommon in the Netherlands, the setting of this portrait. The orange was likely placed there to be a symbol of this couple's wealth.Furthermore, the small dog, while also representing loyalty and faithfulness, is also an extremely rare breed of dog. It must have cost a fair amount for them to purchase that dog and placing it in their painting is practically showing it off. In addition, both people are dressed lavishly, even though the painting was done during the summer time, as indicated by cherry fruit on the tree outside. Despite the season both of their outer garments, Giovanni's thick tabard and his wife's a long flowing dress, are trimmed and fully lined with expensive furs.Having commissioned art in general displays a great amount of wealth. Here, they have taken things a step further by donning their most regal outfits and placing other symbols of their wealth and status within their portrait to enhance it further. The attitude of this merchant is really to dis play as much of his money as he possibly ould because your economic security at this time affected your social standing. The idea that money is a sense of power, and that displaying your wealth is important to your social standing is still present in modern society.The size of your house, what car you drive, what clothes you wear, what devices you own are the things people will base your social status upon. A celebrity with millions of dollars and a beautiful mansion can be Just as idolized as a strong political leader or national hero and people with spend their money however they need to in order to gain social standing. Another ideology is the social norm of growing up, getting married, and starting a family.Symbols within the painting representing loyalty, faithfulness, and most of all hope for fertility, show the couple's intent on staying together and having children. Most children grow up to believe that the socially acceptable thing to do is find someone you love and start a family. Even though it is perfectly accepted in todays society for a woman to remained unmarried, it is almost expected for people to want to have a family. One could argue that it is human nature for people to want to be married.Instinctively, humans' main goal is to survive and thrive, and in order for tnat to nappen It Is Key tnat people reproduce. It Is commonly Dellevea you snou10 D married before you have children so, logically; it is a part of human nature to want to have a successful marriage and for the woman to be fertile. The â€Å"Arnolflni Wedding Portrait† is a complicated and insightful piece of artwork that allows for people to observe details of the Renaissance era as well as discover parallels between that time and ours. Jan van Eyck effectively uses symbolism to tell a story about the couple without a single word.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

God’s Intervention in the world Essay

Explain what is meant by the bible describing God as a miracle worker? Miracles have been reported all over the world for thousands of years. In most scenarios miracles are related to God, and the activity of God within the world suggesting God’s imminence. The world miracle originates from the word â€Å"miraculum† meaning a thing of wonder. It is an interruption to the processes of nature that cannot be explained by natural laws and therefore a transgression. An interruption such as this normally bears some deeper and usually religious significance. The bible recites many ideas of miracles by either God or though Jesus. Within the old testament the story of Joshua and the Israelites. This story explains how he took his army to defend a place called Gibeon and that God was on the side of Joshua and helps them defeat the enemies of Gibeon. God does this by the interruption of natural laws such as pro longing the days, and throwing down a storm of hail. Other texts within the bible suggest miracles performed by God. For example during the story of Moses where he parts the reed sea in order for the Israelites to escape from the Egyptians. Another way miracles are shown within the bible is through Jesus. This is shown in such miracles as the feeding of 5000 and healing of the paralysed man Jesus was told to even bring people back to life. The bible uses these miracles to show Gods immanence within the world and his the relationship between God and humanity. â€Å"miracles make it difficult to believe in a reliable god† The idea of miracles is that they defy the laws of nature. That God Is transcendent but shows his power and goodness by interacting within the world as a miracle worker. For many who have experienced miracles they see it as an experience with God, for an example the theopany between God and Moses. However many issues are raised by the idea of God interfering in the lives of others. Firstly, some people see miracles as being morally unfair. They would say that if God was all good why would he interfere in the lives of some and not others. Why would a good God chose to help certain people and leave others to suffer. For example God helped the Jews many times within the bible whether it be in the story of Moses, Joshua or the feeding of 5000. However let them suffer through persecution so badly during the holocaust of world war two. Not only this but through the stories of Joshua and Moses God is choosing to help some people, in this case the Israelites but not the Egyptians or the enemies of Gibeon if God is the creator of everything in order to be morally correct God should be fair and just. Furthermore in some accounts of miracles from the bible God chooses to help a single person, how would God chose who to help and who to stay in suffering if God was just and fair. A miracle itself therefore contradicts Gods omnibenevolence. Miracles also make God uncertain. According to religious believers God is the creator of everything â€Å"creation ex nihilo† and yet for a miracle to exist God must work against his own creation to create a miracle. This questions God’s immanence as it goes against the idea that God is omniscient and never changing. By producing miracles the original laws created by God are uncertain and changeable. Why would a God that is all God and powerful need to work against his own creation there should be no need for miracles. â€Å"God looked as his work and saw it was good.† How could God be the creator of the earth and want to change how it works?Maurice wiles would agree with this arguing that God couldn’t intervene on an individual level without undermining his whole creation. And that a good who could reject some suffering whilst choosing to help others it not worthy of worship. Although many follow this argument there are those who would say there does not need to be a choice between natural law and miracles, that they can co exist within the same world. That science can only develop by accepting new ideas of which miracles could be one. Also that miracles can have the same sorts of evidence as that of science, accounts by people, memories or physical traces left behind. David Hume is another philosopher who rejects that a reliable God cannot be a God of miracles. He suggests that miracles have nothing to do with God and that those talk of experiencing miraculous events are â€Å"barbarous† â€Å"ignorant† and â€Å"gullible† By this he means that the idea of God creating miracle is simply an excuse for those who cannot understand the true and natural reason for the occurrence. On the other hand there are those who would argue with the ideas of Hume and others sharing that opinion. They would say that although it is questionable as to whether miracles exist and are caused by God there is and equal lack of evidence to deny the occurrence of miracles. Equally that for a religious person it is not to question how God interacts within the world, just to have faith and accept that God is omnipotent, omni benevolent etc and that God must perform these miracles for a reason that is beyond the understanding of humans but is for a good cause.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

American Perception V.S Kite Runner Perception

Perreault 1 Emerald Perreault Mrs. Wagner English IIII 20, December, 2011 American Perception V. S Kite Runner Perception of Afghanistan The U. S went thru the most tragic, life changing, mind conflicting event of all time. On September, 11, 2001 terrorist flew two plans into the Twin Towers in New York City. The terrorist attack on 9/11 devastated and ruined an enormous amount of American lives. Weather an American lost a friend, loved one, or relative, every American lost something valuable that day. Americans lost their right to feel safe: at work, at home, or at popular locations.The last time American safety was threatened was during World War II. U. S citizens are not use to war or violence happening in their country, unlike the Middle East. Americans do not reacted positively, when tragic situation happen. Their reaction to 9/11 changed the American perception of Afghanistan and Muslim culture. Americans lost all their trust for Muslims. That lack of trust between them created a whole new stereotype. Stereotype: A general statement or word, fit to describe a specific group of people.The American stereotype created to describe Muslims is anyone who is Muslim or from the Middle East was sent to America, to destroy their wealthy non dictated, country. National Geographic Channel says,† Afghans who fled their homeland for a new life in the United States are troubled to find themselves subject to suspicion and mistrust on the basis of their nationality and religion. † Based off of this information, Muslims are all being put into one pile, stereotypically. Afghanistan man who goes by the name of Fouzia Afshari says,† We are good people, we are civilized† who volunteers at Mustafa Center, an AfghanPerreault 2 Culture Academy near Washington D. C â€Å"We are not that type of Afghan people are thinking about right now. † Fouzia Afshari is a Muslim, obviously he is not a terrorist or out to get America, the controversy is the attack ers were not American. By not being American, the terrorists allowed Americans to lose trust in a whole country of people. Muslim people will have to deal with the uncertainty of ever gaining American trust back or the American perception of Afghanistan should not be based off of what a handle full of Muslims did,but based on actual facts.Khaled Hosseini book The Kite Runner portrays Afghanistan realistically V. S the American Perception. (National Geographic news website) Clearly, the American Perception of Afghanistan is a little farfetched. The perception is not based on Afghanistan or Muslim culture, but based on what a hand full of Muslims did (AKA 9/11). The terrorist attack traumatized Americans, giving them a stereotypical perception. Typically, when a person thinks of war, immediately people think of other people being shot left and right, bombs exploding everywhere.Americans think that the terrorist attack was the Middle East declaring war on them. From that point on, Amer icans believed that the Afghans that were not fighting U. S troops off, were all sitting at a table brainstorming how their going to attack America next. Some Americans were so devastated that they will not go anywhere near Muslims or anyone from the Middle East because of their stereotypical perception. Muslims own about 75% of the gas station and covenant stores in the United States. Americans that will not associate with Muslims will go farther out of their way for gas.Americans think that Muslims do not like Americans because of the U. S troops in the Middle East and when an American goes to a Muslim gas station, their receiving less gas. Even in an unstable economy Americans still go out Perreault 3 of there way for gas, allowing Muslims to see that Americans truly view them all as terrorist. For Afghans and Muslims it is confusing for them to understand why the America perception is so ridiculous. The perception is not only based on 9/11, it is also has to do with Americans no t being given the full picture of the war in Afghanistan.The media diffidently confuses Americans. Josh Meyer stated in his article Gap between the U. S perception and reality in Iraq, Afghanistan, author posits † While Americans are given one media report after another about how Afghanistan is filled with exploding bombs, attacking hordes of the Taliban and a lawlessness that pervades every corner of the war torn nation, the real story is a more nuanced one. † Americans are given exaggerated reports on what’s happening in Afghanistan. The media is 100% to blame for the skewed version of the Afghanistan war Americans have.Based on that version of the war Americans make false actuation, which hurts the Afghanistan and Muslim population. (Josh Meyer) The American perception of Afghanistan upsets Muslims and makes it harder for their people to come to America. Muslims who are leaving Afghanistan are on America’s side. They are fleeing their own homeland and co ming to start new in America because they do not agree with how their country is being ruined. Afghans come to America for the freedom that is taken from them in Afghanistan. Naweed an Afghan woman tells National Geographic channel â€Å"No art, no radio, no television, painting, drawing-nothing is allowed.Education for women is not allowed. Music is not allowed, they call it satanic. That’s why we are strongly working to keep our culture alive here in America. † Naweed is one of many who wants to feel at home. For Muslims America is their new homeland, but because of the American perception the majority of Perreault 4 afghans feel out of place. â€Å" I’m raising my kids here and I don’t want to feel like I don’t belong here. But, that’s what I feel here as an Afghan and a Muslim. † said Alina to the National Geographic Channel, adding: â€Å" I don’t want to lose another home. Afghans don’t want to come to America the y rather live in their own country where feel at home, but they have no choice. Yet hope remains that Afghanistan will one day be in the hands of peace-loving Afghans and everyone will see the truth. (National Geographic Channel) Afghanistan was once a country where Afghans could be successful and wealthy. Then the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and the Taliban was created, but took a turn for the worst and the U. S army went to help the people in Afghanistan. When the Soviet Union was defeated the Civil War still continued.The Taliban was created to go in and unify the country. The Taliban comes form the word student- that’s what it means. The Taliban is made up of students that went to religious schools in Pakistan and former fighters, who use to fight in the war against the Soviet Union. The Taliban is what made Afghanistan a terraces place to live. After the Taliban brought peace to 80% of the country, they became power hunger and started to take away Afghanistanâ€℠¢s freedom. Even with the Taliban dictating Afghanistan, Josh Meyer, author of Gap between the U.S perception and reality in Iraq, Afghanistan, author posits says, â€Å" Anyone in this room could go to Kabul now and have a fairly good time. There are restaurants and there are bars,† and the streets are not a shooting gallery with various factions trying to kill each other, while armed insurgents are also trying to U. S and coalition forces. â€Å" The Taliban Is not a very large insurgent group. † Josh Meyer is trying to inform Americans that Afghanistan is not Iraq, but it is still not a place where all Afghans can make a living. (Josh Meyer) Perreault 5The Kite runner is the perfect example of how Afghanistan is not Iraq, but not a place where all afghans can make a living. Author Khaled Hosseini tells a story about Amir and Hassan these two Afghan boys who grew up together, but where separated by Amirs will to make his farther proud and the Soviet Union invading. A mir betrayed Hassan by watching him being raped by Asseft because Hassan was a Haraza. Guilt ate at Amir until he framed Hassan for steeling and Hassan and his father left in embarrassment. Shortly after Amir and BaBa ( Amirs farther) took a journey to America.Where Baba had to run a gas satiation and sell items he bought at a yard sale at the local flee market. Before Baba and Amir came to America they were wealthy. So wealthy that Hassan and his father were Baba servants. Afghanistan is not as poverty strict end as Americans thought it was. Amir and Baba did not come to America to destroy it, he came to America because Kabul was not safe and he hoped Amir could receives the best possible education in America. Baba and Amir were in America for two years. For those two years Baba would by a jar of fruit form the same people everyday with cash.One day Baba had no money, he wrote a check out instead. When the man asked for Id Baba exploded, â€Å"He wants to see my license? Almost tw o years we’ve bought his dam fruits and put money in his pocket and son of a dog wants to see my license. † Amir says, â€Å" They’re suppose to ask for Id† Baba says,† Dose he think I’m a thief? What kind of a country is this? No one trusts anybody. † Baba thought that the man working thought he was steeling when the man asked Baba for Id. Baba was offended. Years down the road Amir is told that Hassan died in Kabul.Hassan was shot in the back of the head because a Talian member thought him and his family where living in Amirs old house instead of in the hut outside made specifically for servants. Amir felt responsible because if he Perreault 6 and Baba would of stayed Hassan may still be alive. For Hassan he is an Afghan who should fled from Afghanistan. Amir and Baba could of stayed in Afghanistan. Khaled Hosseini book portrayed Afghanistan well and realistically. (Khaled Hosseini) The American Perception of Afghanistan is not realist ic or based on actual facts.The Kite Runner diffidently grasps and gives a better understanding of Afghanistan. Unfortunely, Afghans who come to America will have to deal with the mistrust Americans have towards them like Baba. The American Perception is not do to Americans not educating themselves. It is because of terrible media reports. Bergen the author of The Longest War: Enduring Conflict between America and Al-Qaeda says, â€Å" It is not being well communicated to the American public that the afghan war is nothing like the Iraq war, the media has to take responsibility for that.The differences between Afghanistan and Iraq couldn’t be more stark. † Bergen wants people to know that the media is portraying Afghanistan as a war torn place like Iraq, when they are both completely different. Afghanistan is not in as big of an up roar as the media made it. Instead of relying on the media to prove Americans with the proper information, Americans should educate themselv es, stop listening to everything they hear. Also Americans should not rely on electronics and once in a while pick up a book or ask someone who is Muslim to explain what’s going on. (Bergen)

Friday, September 13, 2019

Motivational Theories Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Motivational Theories - Essay Example The X and Y theory The theory X and theory Y formulated by Douglas Mc Gregor in the year 1960 positions previous negative perceptions about employees (Theory X) against a positive outlook towards employees and mindset of individuals (Theory Y) eg: Theory X- People inherently dislike work. Theory Y - People view work as being as natural as play and rest. Motivator- Hygiene factors theory : The hygiene factors theory by Frederick Herzberg in the year 1966 is another path breaking concept which clearly listed the factors of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Most accurately explained as Motivator factors that increase job satisfaction and Hygiene factors whose absence can create job dissatisfaction. The essence of the theory is that hygiene factors are the essentials of any employee or an individual at work they are - Security, Salary, Supervision, Company policy, Working conditions and Peer relationship. On the other hand, motivator factors are - work itself, Responsibility, recognition, achievement, advancement and growth. However, the first two theories give a general insight about an individual's needs and perceptions to understand a human's psychology about work was the theory of Frederick Herzberg that clearly lists the requisites of any given job for an individual. The three needs theory -... The highlight of the theory is direct relation it draws to the relevance to the word "Motivation' or factors that motivate. In this case factors that motivate individuals to perform and succeed. The needs theory includes all factors that come from within an individual. Eg: Competitiveness, influence that one exerts on another, need for achievement, acceptance and friendship. Goal Setting theory and Equity theory: The goal setting theory by the Stacey Adams in the year 1965 states that specific goals set by any organization for an individual increases performance in the of sales the goal is monthly target of sale on products to be achieved. The theory further goes on to explain that acceptance of a difficult goal only results in higher performance, even when compared to a goal that is easily achievable. The equity theory is nothing but the simple equation that any individual draws between the efforts and rewards an individual is constantly trying to match both sides by reducing efforts or increasing the same depending on the rewards and recognition expected. Eg: If a sales representative sees the reward or recognition is receives after he meets the required monthly target is unequal to his effort or sincerity he is bound to under perform the following month. Expectancy Theory: This theory by Victor Vroom in the year 1964 aims to substantiate the motivation theory more accurately for any sales unit. Victor Vroom explains the theory in three simple questions: 1. How hard will I have to work - Effort 2. What is the reward - Reward 3. How attractive is the reward - Attractiveness of reward. Thus the above mentioned theories in one way of or the other help in understanding the various factors of

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Management Role Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Management Role - Assignment Example How mny trining progrms tell them how to pply this fund of knowledge This problem is common to ledership selection s well s to ledership trining, nd I shll discuss tht in the pper tht follows. Mngers selection is the decision process by which pplicnts re ssigned to one of two possible outcomes (e.g., "hire" vs. "do not hire"). The decision could be with regrd to hiring for prticulr job or prticulr clss of jobs. Mngers clssifiction refers to decision process tht requires ech individul to be either not hired or hired nd then ssigned to one of two or more job lterntives. Tht is, if individuls re hired, there re lterntive job ssignments for which they could be considered. If there exist some set of ssignment decision rules tht will yield more benefit to the orgniztion thn rndom ssignment, then there exists potentil clssifiction gin. Consequently, the benefits from improving selection nd clssifiction procedures cn ccrue from two mjor sources. Better selection would bring in people whose predicted benefit would be higher, no mtter wht the job ssignment (i.e., verged cross ll the different jobs they could tke). Better clssifiction would, for ll those people hired, chieve better "fit" of individuls with different chrcteristics to jobs with different requirements. The more ny orgniztion cn lern bout the benefits nd costs of lterntive methods for selecting nd clssifying the individuls who pply, the more effective its personnel mngement systems cn be. Idelly, personnel mngement would benefit most from complete simultion of the entire system tht would permit full rnge of "wht if" questions focused on the effects of chnges in () lbor supply, (b) recruiting procedures, (c) selection nd clssifiction mesures, (d) decision-mking lgorithms, (e) pplicnt preferences, (f) vrious orgniztionl constrints, nd (g) orgniztionl gols (e.g.. mximizing ggregte performnce, chieving certin distribution of individul performnce in ech job, minimizing ttrition, minimizing discipline problems, or mximizing morle). Further, it would be desirble to hve good estimte of the specific costs involved when ech prmeter is chnged. However, describing, or "modeling" effective selection nd clssifiction in lrge orgniztion is complex business. When considering ll the vritions in ll the relevnt components, there my be dozens, or even hundreds, of lterntive models. lso, there is lwys t lest one constrint on mngers decision-mking specific to the orgniztion, which complictes the decision model even further. The overll complexity of ny rel-world personnel mngement sitution is such tht it probbly cnnot be fully modeled by currently vilble nlytic methods (Cmpbell, 1990). It my not be possible even to describe ll the potentil prmeters tht influence the outcomes of rel-world selection procedure. However, for purposes of setting the context for this series of projects, we strt by simply listing some of the mjor prmeters of selection nd clssifiction decision-mking tht we do know bout, nd the principl implictions of ech. The Gol(s) of Selection By definition, selection nd clssifiction decision procedures re implemented to chieve prticulr objective, or set of objectives. Identifying the objective(s) for the selection system is the most criticl ingredient in the design of the

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

The Independent Government Cost Estimate and the Statement of Work Research Paper

The Independent Government Cost Estimate and the Statement of Work - Research Paper Example The report evaluates the importance of the importance of the IGCE and provides reasons for confidentiality of the IGCE. It also proposes actions that should be taken in order to maintain the confidentiality of the IGCE. The report also provides a detailed cost estimate for the project. In this report, the types of statement of work (SOW) in regard to compatibility with this contract have been evaluated to determine the most appropriate type of statement of work (SOW) for this contract. Importance of the IGCE The Independent Government Cost Estimate is very important in the acquisition process. This is because the Independent Government Cost Estimate will assist in determining the rationality of a contractor’s cost and technical proposals and gain assurance that there is a congruence in ideas between the Federal Government’s contract awarding office and contract vendors pertaining to the scope of the contract. Secondly, the Independent Government Cost Estimate will assis t in developing and presenting the position of the Government. An Independent Government Cost Estimate is normally based on actual costs (NAVSEA, 2013). Third, when an Independent Government Cost Estimate is in place, it will help to avoid or to alleviate against major risks and adverse consequences. This will improve the probability of purchase and project success. Furthermore, the Independent Government Cost Estimate will enable resource managers to plan and budget confidently because it offers a reasonable assurance of cost. It will determine the selection of sources because it acts as a baseline for cost or price evaluation (Ipsaro, 2011). This is what will help in the determination and choice of the right offeror. An Independent Government Cost Estimate helps the Government in cost estimation and supports government defense if a vendor loses the competition and protests the decision (Ipsaro, 2011). This Independent Government Cost Estimate will be used to speed up the process o f contract award because it a solid Independent Government Cost Estimate. The Independent Government Cost Estimate is important because it will be used by contracting officer’s technical representatives to estimate a reasonable cost or price of a contract modification when changes in scope occur during the contract’s period of performance. Contracting officer’s technical representatives monitor a contract’s cost or budget schedule during a contract’s administration (Ipsaro, 2011). Further, this Independent Government Cost Estimate will be essential in estimating contract cost with accuracy and confidence. This is because the Independent Government Cost Estimate will use market research to obtain data that will be used for price analysis. Such market research data will include labor standards, analysis of cost trends for direct labor and material, to avoid past inefficiencies creeping into the proposal. The Independent Government Cost Estimate will determine whether the elements of the offeror are realistic for the work to be performed. It will also help in determining and establishing whether offerors reflect a clear understanding of the requirements of the contract. Third, the Independent Government Cost Estimate will help in establishing the consistency of the contractors with the unique methods of performance and materials that will be described in the offerors’ technical proposals (Engelbeck, 2002). Finally, the Independent

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

This paper is about African Art. Topic is free to choose anything Research

This is about African Art. Topic is free to choose anything about African Art but should focus on one form or practice of - Research Paper Example Art plays play vital roles in the human lives as it communicates, entertains, a source of income, express the mood in the society, differentiate as far as culture and practices are concerned. Art could also be used to add aesthetic values to our infrastructure, automobiles and clothing among others. Art can attract foreigners from different corners of the world to a specific destination, for instance, a majority of Europeans and other parts of the developed nations travel to Africa just to have a real feel of the African art. They enjoy the African dances, songs, sculptures and paintings among other elements of Art. This discourse is about the unique architecture of the Egyptian’s pyramids as a form of visual art. The Egyptian’s pyramids are some of the most unique and valuable art in Africa. It is divided into various categories depending on the origin (Smyth 2013). The beauty of the pyramids is not only attributed to the structures but other features included in them. For instance, Egyptian’s pyramids have relief sculptures as well as produced wall paintings among other refreshing features. Some of the sculptures in the pyramids include the famous obelisks and the sphinx statues among others (Arnold, 2010). Talking of the Egyptian’s pyramids without the mention of the ancient Egypt history is regarded as incomplete. The ancient Egypt was characterized by desert and dry grassland climates. This could explain why the native Egyptians had to employ some desert features like the sand dunes to construct their structures. They could place huge obstacles in the open fields to trap dust and this marked the foundation or the beginning of their unique constructions. Mesopotamia was one of the ancient towns and it developed due to its two rivers namely Tigris and Euphrates. It’s believed that the two rivers contributed huge to the civilization in the region, as it supported trade and transport from foreigners from neighbouring cities l ike China and India. The two rivers also provided for the construction of the Egyptian’s ancient structures. The two rivers also provided water for agriculture among other domestic and commercial uses. The ancient Egypt was governed by the elite class called the monarch. It comprised by of the top ranked priests among other officials. The middle class was left to the merchants, tradesmen and clergy among others. The final low class was the slaves who were forced by their masters to toil in the agricultural fields and construction labourers. They were Israelites who were once welcomed in the country, but the changes in the monarchy changed their general hospitality in the country. Egyptian’s pyramids with the sculpture of god of the sun Sun baked bricks were the main construction material in the ancient Egypt. The bricks were moulded from the rich Nile River clay then left to dry in the natural sun. However, structure for the top monarch leaders were constructed from th e stones. The country is rich in limestone except the agricultural rich Mesopotamia. The unique exterior walls are carefully to either slope gently or stand vertical. The ancient architecture arrived at the flat roofs due the fact that the country was basically a desert; hence no major rain was expected. The roofs are structurally supported by well constructed beams and columns, both made from clay. The ancient buildings have the native