Monday, December 9, 2019

Computer Behaviours and Topologies

Question: Discuss the Different types of computer behaviours and topologies, Comparison of the similarities between different types of computer criminal behaviour and topologies and Analysis of how organizations can benefit from understanding each of these different computer criminal behaviours and topologies? Answer: Introduction According to Gostev (2012), the development of digital technologies represents an opportunity for any business to provide new tools for communication. The online activities become central to the way people live. However, this internet represents opportunities to cyber criminals. Computer crime is an act that is performed by the computer user, sometimes referred to as hacker that browses the companys private information illegally (Greenbaum, 2015). Additionally, computer crime includes the crimes that are to be conducted using internet such as hate crimes, online fraud, thefts of bank account details; these are considered to be computer or cyber crimes when these illegal activities are to be dedicated through the use of computer (Walker-Osborn McLeod, 2015). Different types of computer behaviours and topologies According to Prasanthi (2015), at a basic level, the types of computer behaviour are divided into the following categories, but there is no such universally accepted typology of the Internet crimes. Online Assault: It involves the violence that is raised through internet such as the threats that results in emotional response on the victim. The online assaults are of different types such as cyber bullying, online sexual exploitation of children etc. Cyber bullying occurs when the minors use the internet devices to tease as well as harass other minors (Henson, Reyns Fisher, 2011). The online sexual exploitation occurs when a child by using internet; establish some online relationships with other children. Social networking sites are the place for the offender to make such type of crime (Patel, 2012). Online Fraud: It uses the online sites in an effort to profit financially. Such types of online fraud are sale fraud, inheritance scams as well as phishing etc. In sale fraud, the selling of products on the online sites is misrepresented by the seller of the products (Walker-Osborne Price, 2011). Therefore, after the payment of the products, they never delivered those products to the buyer (Keen, 2011). Such that in inheritance scams, a criminal contacted the victim and told that they win some lottery online of a large amount (Al-Agaga, 2012). Then the victim is being instructed to pay an amount to initiate the process to deliver the money. In phishing, the criminal poses as lawful business includes credit card Company, online retailer to convince the victim to give the information related to password; bank details (Sood Enbody, 2011). Sometimes, it also involves spoofed emails to do the fraud. Such schemes are used to take the personal information of the victim to profit financial ly by withdrawing funds from the account of that victim (Holt, 2014). Cyber extortion: It occurs when a website as well as computer system is endangered with repeated denial of service by the malicious hackers. These hackers claim for money in return of promise to stop the attacks and promise to offer protection (Barn, 2012) Online theft: It is mainly used to steal the information as well as money from the owner. This type of crime often involves the misuse of the victims personal information for the purpose of committing theft (Vijaya Geeta, 2011). It consists of online piracy to share intellectual property by using the Internet; the problem of piracy is being compounded by peer-to-peer contribution of files throughout which the resources can be distributed illegally (Edwards, 2014). Online Intrusion: It involves the use of internet to infect the space of other individual, computer systems (Takieddine Sun, 2015). It is the act that an individual attempt to surpass a computer systems safety measures is referred to as hacking. Viruses are designed to spread throughout the whole computer to reduce the efficiency of the system (Raiu, 2012). Comparison of the similarities between different types of computer criminal behaviour and topologies The similarities between different types of computer criminal behaviour and topologies are that all the computer crime is being unauthorized access to computer systems or any networks (Caldwell, 2013). Most of the crime includes the stealing of information stored in the computer hard disks or detachable storage media. Normally, this kind of theft is done by getting hold of access of the login id as well as password of the victim (Cornford, 2011). This is one of the reported cases of cyber crime in all over the world. The crime is done against any organization, individuals, individual property (Nuredini, 2014). The offenders focus on the financial gain such as the use of phishing emails to gain access to details of the bank account. At the time of investigating the threat, the law enforcement is challenged while tracing the actions to the source (Barmaki, 2012). In some instances, technological devices are served as repositories for evidence of the cybercrime. All these cyber crimes w ould be harmful for the organization in the area of financial property as well as transfer of data within the organizations (Bednar, Katos Hennell, 2014). Comparison of the difference between different types of computer criminal behaviour and topologies Mostly, computer crimes focus on the financial gain but in case of child exploitation, the motive is not always profit. The motive may include intellectual curiosity or challenge, revenge, gaining some respect in online communities etc. The difference between a cyber attacks to commit crime as well as commit terror is found in the intension of the attacker (Mitchell Chen, 2014). Online frauds as well as online theft are different from each other. Fraud is a lie, if someone allows believing something that is not true and the victim are being fraud. Theft is losing of money from computer crime. Analysis of how organizations can benefit from understanding each of these different computer criminal behaviours and topologies Financial frauds as well as identify theft are conducted by the hackers to evolve into serious threats to the financial services industry and any organization (Vadza, 2011). According to computer crime and security survey, these two are the worlds most cyber crime threat. Most of the organizations are benefited from understanding the different computer criminal behaviour and topologies (Farrington Ttofi, 2014). From there understanding, the organization should avoid the disclosing of any information to any unknown sites as well as they should keep the back up of their important files such that there is no chance of suffering any data loss in case of hacking (Hrnle, 2012). The company should avoid sending the credit card number to any site that is not safe. The organization must use the latest as well as updated antivirus to prevent their computers data against the virus attacks; and use a security programme to give control over cookies (Patel, 2012). An organization should ensure a security awareness that prevent the attack and make the attackers think twice before committing any cyber crime (Hua Haughton, 2012). Psychological screening is an extreme step that should be done before the hiring of employees in an organization (Sahu, Maheshwari Sahu, 2015). Most of the organizations are benefited by the further research in psychological profiling of the hackers (Kumar Mittal, 2012). Therefore, modelling behaviour can be assisted and it is predictive in nature; providing a criminal justice system as well as information technology industry to prevent the unauthorized use of data (Payne Hollin, 2014). Although, various qualitative data exist to build the profile of the individuals that may fit the psychological model of the cyber crime (McIntyre, 2014). Conclusion The advancement of technology such as Internet provides both the individuals as well as organizations with a mean to commit crimes; therefore millions of people are affected by online crime every day. The computer crime is becoming one of the most threatening crimes for both law enforcement as well as the public. These crimes are hate crimes, internet fraud, thefts of credit card account, and telemarketing fraud, these are measured to be computer or cyber crimes when the illegal actions are to be committed throughout using of both computer and internet. Online assault is the crime that involves the crime of harassment, threats of violence etc. Online fraud or theft is the use of dishonesty as well as violate of confidence online to profit financially. Online intrusion involves using of Internet to damage other individuals computer programs. Therefore, the organization should avoid the disclosing of any information to any unknown sites as well as they should keep the back up of their important files such that the individual may not suffer from any data loss in case of hacking. Reference List Al-Agaga, A. (2012). FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE E-LOYALTY OF INTERNET BANKING USERS. Ijecs, 3(2), 297-304. doi:10.7903/ijecs.1097 Barmaki, R. (2012). Book Review: Computer Crime, Investigation, and the Law. Criminal Justice Review, 37(1), 132-133. doi:10.1177/0734016811405286 Barn, D. (2012). Insuring cyber-assets. Computer Fraud Security, 2012(9), 5-8. doi:10.1016/s1361-3723(12)70090-8 Bednar, P., Katos, V., Hennell, C. (2014). On the complexity of collaborative cyber crime investigations. DEESLR, 6(0). doi:10.14296/deeslr.v6i0.1894 Caldwell, T. (2013). Plugging the cyber-security skills gap. Computer Fraud Security, 2013(7), 5-10. doi:10.1016/s1361-3723(13)70062-9 Cornford, A. (2011). Criminalising Anti-Social Behaviour. Criminal Law, Philosophy, 6(1), 1-19. doi:10.1007/s11572-011-9134-9 Edwards, C. (2014). Ending identity theft and cyber crime. Biometric Technology Today, 2014(2), 9-11. doi:10.1016/s0969-4765(14)70033-5 Farrington, D., Ttofi, M. (2014). Criminal careers in self-reports compared with official records. Criminal Behaviour And Mental Health, 24(4), 225-228. doi:10.1002/cbm.1932 Gostev, A. (2012). Cyber-threat evolution: the year ahead. Computer Fraud Security, 2012(3), 9-12. doi:10.1016/s1361-3723(12)70052-0 Greenbaum, D. (2015). Cyber crime 2.0. Science, 348(6231), 193-193. doi:10.1126/science.aaa7298 Henson, B., Reyns, B., Fisher, B. (2011). Crime and Criminal Behavior. Retrieved 12 July 2015, from Holt, T. (2014). Cyber war will not take place, by Thomas Rid. Global Crime, 15(1-2), 206-208. doi:10.1080/17440572.2014.884235 Hrnle, T. (2012). Criminalizing Behaviour to Protect Human Dignity. Criminal Law, Philosophy, 6(3), 307-325. doi:10.1007/s11572-012-9177-6 Hua, G., Haughton, D. (2012). A network analysis of an online expertise sharing community. Soc. Netw. Anal. Min., 2(4), 291-303. doi:10.1007/s13278-012-0047-y Keen, A. (2011). Tracking online fraud across the globe. New Scientist, 211(2831), 62. doi:10.1016/s0262-4079(11)62358-0 Kumar, P., Mittal, S. (2012). The Perpetration and Prevention of Cyber Crime. International Journal Of Technoethics, 3(1), 43-52. doi:10.4018/jte.2012010104 McIntyre, L. (2014). Cyber-Takings: The War on Crime Moves into the Cloud. Pittsburgh Journal Of Technology Law And Policy, 14(2). doi:10.5195/tlp.2014.148 Mitchell, R., Chen, I. (2014). A survey of intrusion detection techniques for cyber-physical systems. CSUR, 46(4), 1-29. doi:10.1145/2542049 Nuredini, A. (2014). CHALLENGES IN COMBATING THE CYBER CRIME. Mediterranean Journal Of Social Sciences. doi:10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n19p592 Patel, K. (2012). End User Policy in Combating Cyber Terrorism and Cyber Crime. Global Journal For Research Analysis, 3(1), 28-30. doi:10.15373/22778160/january2014/11 Payne, K., Hollin, C. (2014). Alexithymia, Asperger's syndrome and criminal behaviour: a review. Journal Of Criminal Psychology, 4(2), 155-162. doi:10.1108/jcp-11-2013-0030 Prasanthi, M. (2015). Cyber Crime: Prevention Detection. International Journal Of Advanced Research In Computer And Communication Engineering, 45-48. doi:10.17148/ijarcce.2015.4311 Raiu, C. (2012). Cyber-threat evolution: the past year. Computer Fraud Security, 2012(3), 5-8. doi:10.1016/s1361-3723(12)70051-9 Sahu, B., Maheshwari, D., Sahu, N. (2015). Simulation Model for Cyber Crime Reduction. International Journal Of Computer Applications, 115(21), 20-22. doi:10.5120/20275-2693 Sood, A., Enbody, R. (2011). The state of HTTP declarative security in online banking websites. Computer Fraud Security, 2011(7), 11-16. doi:10.1016/s1361-3723(11)70073-2 Takieddine, S., Sun, J. (2015). Internet banking diffusion: A country-level analysis. Electronic Commerce Research And Applications. doi:10.1016/j.elerap.2015.06.001 Vadza, K. (2011). Cyber Crime its Categories. IJAR, 3(5), 130-133. doi:10.15373/2249555x/may2013/39 Vijaya Geeta, D. (2011). Online identity theft an Indian perspective. Journal Of Financial Crime, 18(3), 235-246. doi:10.1108/13590791111147451 Walker-Osborn, C., McLeod, B. (2015). Getting Tough on Cyber Crime. ITNOW, 57(2), 32-33. doi:10.1093/itnow/bwv042 Walker-Osborne, C., Price, J. (2011). The War on Cyber Crime. ITNOW, 53(6), 30-31. doi:10.1093/itnow/bwr061

Monday, December 2, 2019

The Digital Music Distribution Revolution free essay sample

What industry conditions lead to the revolution In audio distribution? Which stakeholders stand to benefit most (or least) from this revolution? The MPH technology gave Its users several advantages such as the chance to transfer music to the new digitally recorded format, while also providing a way to download and play music digitally on personal computers. For example, software programs gave listeners the ability to convert CDC to the new digital format, whereas broad base MPH licensees allowed easy access to encoders and decoders for customers.In addition, Anapest provided a way to share freely MPH files on the internet, while added features in tunes, such as those that only allowed upload to a maximum of five computers, prevented their users from mass distribution of the recorded materials. Other applications prevented Amps from being played on non-pod MPH players or prevented customers from emailing them (Kenosha, 2013). Music became cheaper to access because the MPH format began offering It at reasonable prices online. We will write a custom essay sample on The Digital Music Distribution Revolution or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Apples Pod ultimately allowed for the success of Tunes. Podiatrist became tool that Individual artists could use to make their bedposts available for their listeners to download without harming their copyrights (Kenosha, 2013). Several things contributed to the audio distribution revolution In regards to the competitors in the recorded music business. These included information technologies allowing high-speed, low cost distribution, storage and advertising options that allowed artists to by-pass expensive record labels (Schilling, 2010). Customers were the stakeholders that benefited most from the digital music revolution, because they loud get much more music for cheaper prices.In addition, independent musicians benefited greatly, because they were able to put their music out to the public even if they did not have a formal recording contract. Third, sellers of digital media such as Apple reaped great rewards, because they had a new source of revenue as customers rapidly purchased such devices (Schilling, 2010). Those stakeholders who p robably benefited less Included major record labels. They did not hold contracts for more and more music sales and/or were sold without royalty payments to these companies.The easy access this technology gave consumers to independent artists created high competition for the artists already signed to record contracts. This resulted in artists losing royalties due to music pirating (Schilling, 2010). In summary, the transformation of music, songs and albums, into the new digital recorded, MPH, format led to an industry revolution in audio distribution. The end users, customers who bought and listened to the music, ultimately were the greater winners in this revolution (Devote, 2010). Why did the music stores created by the record labels fail to attract many subscribers?What, if anything, should the record labels have done differently? Failure to offer music from anyone except their own labels drove customers away, because music enthusiasts often Like a range of music. Failure of consumers to know which labels belonged to which record co mpany also kept consumers from using these stores. The record companies could have avoided both of these problems by having joint ventures with other labels where consumers could stores included using proprietary file formats, greatly limited digital rights management schemes, and limited selections as compared to those offered byAnapest. Failure to use the MPH format by the large label companies for their songs evolved into major issues for these big label music stores (Devote, 2010). Other problems also existed, as various new services did not really understand the value of the digital music market. In addition, the big players in the old record company market were overstressed in recapturing their old advantage in the music industry instead of impressing the new digital age. The internet, by virtue of its nature, had the capacity to offer vast opportunities for exploring new music.These new digital revise were constructing their services based on market shares. The old record labels, in their actions, influenced the startups in t he digital music industry, forcing them to offer music around what the major labels were already offering (Callas, 2012). On the other hand, successful services such as tunes and Spottily recognized early on the potential force of the digital market. They also understood the need in this new market to provide access to a remarkable depth and breadth of music, embodied particularly by leading Indies bands (Callas, 2012).What will determine owe long the success of the pod and tunes endures? Should Apple allow its pods to play non-tunes songs? Should Apple allow tunes songs to play on non-pod MPH players? The pod popularity has steadily declined as other gadgets that play music have been introduced to the market such the cell phone, the Mac, the pad and the phone. Apple, however, seems to think they can still make some money and have not withdrawn the pod from the market even though it cannot connect to the internet or access services such as tunes (Ziegler, 2012).In addition, both the pod and the tunes store are easily copied. Since Apple does not own the music it sells, it must rely on other suppliers, making their success heavily dependent upon successful branding and the network externalities associated with the pod-tunes installed base. Given the large installed base of Pods, the restricted compatibility between tunes and pods allows the creation of a DOD barrier for competitors. If the system were opened up so that tunes could play on any device and pods could play any song, both the device and the tunes service would be subject to much greater pricing pressure.Therefore, it makes sense or Apple to resist opening them up, however students would be quick to point out that if a major competitor, or a set of competitors builds an assault on Apples dominant position in this market, Apple may be forced to open up in order to be competitive (Melissa A, 2010). There are factors that will determine the longevity of success of the pod and tunes. First, one thinks of Apples cool factor that many younger generations consumers enjoy.Second, their well planned marketing strategies have also allowed success with a strong relationship with music labels. Third, other factors of long enjoyed success will be described by its use of digital formats, competitive prices for song and album downloads, and strong licensing agreements with music labels that enable the ability to of fer one-stop digital music shopping for consumers. Apple does allow its pod to play non-tunes songs. If one burns music to blank audio CDC, however, tunes will not allow users to burn non-tunes songs. Apple should allow this is a mute point.Apples pod line already owns 73% of the MPH players market share. They achieved this by only allowing tunes music to be played on pods Vito, 2010). The pod will play . MPH and . MPH, as MPH files are tunes songs that a person originally downloaded, and . MPH files are either converted files that one converted Into tunes or files that one did not get through tunes. The pod supports a variety of audio formats: AC, Protected AC (from tunes Store), HE-AC, MPH, Audible, Apple Lossless, BIFF (as found on CDC), and WAVE (Answers, AAA).An pod can play music from any source so long as it is in a format that the pod recognizes. Many retailers who provide an MPH download service, such as Amazon, eave an option in their software to automatically add purchases to the tunes software to aid adding the music to an pod (Answers, Bibb). Why would musicians sign away their copyright privileges to their songs through Creative Commons? The exposure of being widely distributed may be more valuable to independent artists than revenues if they protected their music (Schilling, 2010).Creative Commons is a nonprofit corporation dedicated to making it easier for people to share and build up the work of others. Creative Commons allows people, musicians ND auth ors, to create their own license and provides up to six free licenses to designate how authors want to share their work (US, 2013). First, Creative Commons developed licensing schemes that will allow copyright holders, including musicians, to license their works for the public to share at varying levels of openness.Since Creative Commons allows musicians to make it known that their music is available for downloading and distribution without the risk of infringement suits, musicians would sign away their copyright privileges to their songs because of the varying degrees of openness that consumers would be able to share their music. This gave freedom for potential customers to get the music they wanted without the risk of lawsuits (Devote, 2010). How is podiatrist likely to impact the profitability of recorded music, radio broadcasting, or other types of audio transmissions?Whereas podiatrist may increase the ease and attractiveness of listening to music and other broadcasts that are not protected by copyright, it also provides an additional medium for piracy of content that is owned by others. In the short run, t hen, podiatrist could diminish the profitability of recorded media. On the other hand, in the long run sophisticated poetasters may come about that would dominate the market. In addition, providers of digital content may develop sophisticated digital rights management technology that would prevent pirating.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

The rest of the novel Essays

The rest of the novel Essays The rest of the novel Essay The rest of the novel Essay How are the themes that are introduced in the first five chapters reflected in the rest of the novel? In chapters 1-5, a number of pivotal events occur in Great Expectations that affect the characters and their actions in many different ways. In this part of the novel, Dickens introduces themes that are subsequently carried on throughout the novel. For instance, guilt is reflected continuously. Pip is shown as a guilty character, and battling with his guilty conscience becomes apparent and affects him. Death is also part of all the characters lives. In the opening of the novel we are introduced to some of the main characters, Magwitch and Pip. Pip is also the narrator and he tells us that his parents are dead. Pips immaturity and childhood fears are explored in some detail. In this story there is a definite social class division. The way Pip transforms and becomes a gentleman of a higher social class. Also the way criminals and Pip, as well as other characters are treated unjust and the way they go about getting justice. I will explore these themes in greater detail. The opening chapter in the novel begins with Pip telling us about his dead parents and siblings. on the authority of his tombstone. Dickens does this to give us an idea as to what one of the main themes are in the novel, death. This tells us that death has already become part of Pips life, and that he must already have serious emotional scars caused by death. The theme of death carries on throughout the novel, this is shown in a few different ways. One way death is carried on is the death of Pips sister and parent guardian Mrs Joe. It was the first time that a grave had opened in my road of life, and the gap it made in the smooth ground was wonderful. The figure of my sister sat in her chair by the kitchen fire haunted me night and day When a loved one dies, we would normally grieve for them, not describe the memories of them as haunting, However Mrs Joe was not loving to Pip and they didnt have the regular brother sister bond. The way he described the tragic event as wonderful shows maybe he didnt grieve or miss Mrs Joe. The death of two other main characters in this novel also carries on the theme of death. We know Magwitch led a sinful and corrupt life. He committed crimes and wasnt a pleasant person. However Magwitch dies peacefully and quietly. This suggests he was repented of his sins and forgiven for what he had done. This was because of his apologies to Pip, and remorse for giving up his daughter Estella. However, Miss Havisham died in a violent fire. The way Dickens chose for Miss Havisham to die in a fire gives us the idea that it links to hell and sins. Miss Havisham wasnt a very nice person. She tormented Pip when he went to play at her house, making him feel uncomfortable. She also led Pip and his family to believe she was Pips benefactor. She never said she was but she did know Pip thought she was his benefactor because Pip went to visit her to say thank you and she could have told him the truth, also the way she is cruel to men and teaches Estella to be also suggests she wasnt a nice person and maybe deserved to die this way. This cannot be coincidence. The characters in this novel get what they deserve, and bad things happen to the characters that have not lead a moralistic life. There is a very strong portrayal of the theme death throughout the novel as it shows that death is a punishment not just part of life. From the novel we know that Pip didnt have an easy childhood. He was always living in fear and made fun of. In chapter one we learn that Pip is an orphan. As I never saw my father or my mother For any child never to see their parents must be very distressing. A child needs parents to be loved by throughout their childhood, and to be brought up by. However, Pips parent figure is his sister, Mrs Joe Gargery. His sister frequently uses violence towards pip. Knowing her to have a hard and heavy hand For a childs parent figure to be violent must make the child feel un-loved. He has no one to show affection except Joe, his sisters husband. Joes station and influence were something feebler (if possible) when there was company but he always aided and comforted me when he could. Pip can turn to Joe, but Joe is unable to support Pip as he has no confidence and is not respected by others. The use of the word feebler suggests that Joe is in the same position as Pip or even worse. His immediate family doesnt just torment Pip, the visitors push him aside and are indictive towards him. They are cruel and he is bullied continuously. I was squeezed in at an acute angle on the table cloth, with the Pumblechookian elbow in my eye This gives us an image of Pip sat at the table squeezed on the corner with no room. This shows there was no space for Pip and he was unwanted. Strangers also bully pip. For example on the marches when he is approached by Magwitch and Pip is scared for his life. Keep still you little devil, or ill cut your throat Wherever Pip goes he seems to get bullied in some way. For a child to go through this life must be difficult. Childhood should be a time of enjoyment; instead he is unwanted, has no parents and is bullied. We know that Mrs Joe is Pips guardian, but she isnt a parent figure. She is not someone who Pip can look up to and idolise like many children do. He can turn to Joe, however throughout the novel he is shown more as an equal than a parental figure. I supposed that Joe Gargery and I were both brought up by hand Normally we use the phrase brought up when we say a child has been brought up by their parents, as in being punished and taught life lessons. However we wouldnt normally use the phrase when saying an adult was bringing up another adult. However Dickens does this to show how equal Pip and Joe were. This makes us believe for a moment that Joe and Pip are siblings, because they are treated the same. The duties of a parent include protecting the child, but if Joe is more of an equal he cannot protect Pip from the violence inflicted on him by his sister. This must make Pip feel helpless. In a normal relationship between a child and a parental figure the child would be able to ask for help and feel they were secure in the company of this adult, however Joe is just as scared as Pip is so this must make him feel even worse, because Joes fear of Mrs Joe shows Pip that Mrs Joe is a woman to fear. This is because children see adults as fearless and brave, but Joe is afraid, which highlights how bad Mrs Joe is to live with. The way Pip says him and Joe are both brought up by hand shows Pips innocence and immaturity. If Pip was older and had a proper up bringing he would know what the term to be brought up meant. Instead he says him and Joe are both brought up by hand which shows Pip thinks that the term brought up means to be punished with violence, like he and Joe both are. This simply emphasises the fact that Pip is very young and nai ve, which then makes us sympathise for him because of the torments he has to put up with. Mr and Mrs Joes relationship must have some affect on Pip. As we know it is important for a child to grow up in a loving environment instead both mature figures in the household do not have a proper relationship, Pip and Joe both live in a hostile environment because of Mrs Joe. The way Dickens names Mrs Joe reflects irony. Although the wife of Joe has taken both his names in the traditional patriarchal way (usually suggesting the wife is the husbands property) the Gargery household contrasts the patriarchal tradition. In fact, her husband is treated as a child and Pip and he are the inferior ones within the family. Estella parentage is extremely ironic. She lives in a large house and has a high social status, however her father is an escaped convict, so how can father and daughter belong to different class divisions at opposite ends of the social class spectrum? The way Estella find it easy to conform with the higher social class lifestyle shows how parentage and childhood ultimately affect how the person will behave in adulthood. This idea is exhibited through the way Estella treats males Estella repeatedly warns Pip that she has no heart. These characteristics that Estella holds come from that of her adoptive mother, Miss Havisham, who was jilted at the alter by her fianci , therefore hates all men and is cruel to them. Estella again shows her lack of respect for males when Pip first goes to visit Satis house with Uncle Pumplechook, and Estella is rude to Mr Pumblecook. Oh! she said. Did you wish to see Miss Havisham? If Miss Havisham wish to see me.. Ah! Said the girl; but you see she dont The way Estella is rude to Mr Pumblechook shows that she has no respect for males, even her elders. This tells us that Estella isnt taught common courtesy towards males and Miss Havishams bitterness is subsequently transferred to Estella through setting a bad example, which will affect Estellas live in a negative way.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Patriots Win

Patriots Win #PatriotsWIN Exult Patriots Fans! Sorry Seattle Seahawks, our Turn to Win! In spite of the fact that some kept wondering why the Patriots even appeared on the Super Bowl with the deflating scandal behind, the players proved that Super Bowl was about football, not footballs. To their justice, the game was thrilling, heart-stopping and made us nervous! Forget about the last two seasons, even this game gave no certainty the New England Patriots can really win. We could not relax and be sure in victory almost until the end of the game. All we had is our deep belief. Luckily, it paid off; they won the Super Bowl this time! They did†¦ and we can’t be happier. Thank you, Malcolm Butler, for putting an end to all our doubts. You sealed this victory. I mean, did you see that? A reminder: it was Malcolm Butler who intercepted opponents pass in the end zone with just 26 seconds left until the end of the game. Malcolm Butler was not the only hero of this game. Tom Brady led his team to four touchdowns, breaking Joe Montana Super Bowl record. He completed all eight passes, including the one to Julian Edelman who later said: â€Å"Tom Brady came out here, he’s been to six Super Bowls, he’s won four with the salary cap. It’s hard to argue against that.† Butler shook the Seahawks defense claimed to be the strongest asset of their team and the best NFL has. His last catch had a nauseating effect the Seahawks and you could literally see! Tom Brady won his third Most Valuable Player. Eleven years have passed since he won his second one. This is the fourth victory after the Patriots lost three Super Bowls in a row. That was a real down for all of us, fans since they got us used to winning before. Reminder again: the Patriots won three Super Bowls in four years about a decade ago. Thank you for being back on track, guys! Was it only their talent and persistence that got them the trophy? Maybe the break in the team’s routine contributed too. As far as we know, Bill Belichick gave the whole day off for the team before the game instead of a usual walkthrough. That was something new. I guess that rest was crucial for the players. We must admit that Seattle did not quit. The Seahawks showed class. Kearse showed impressive 33-yard catch. Marshawn Lynch rushed for 4 yards, then backup cornerback Butler, who was victimized on Kearses reception, made the biggest play of his first NFL season with 20 seconds remaining. The Seahawks did their best to become the first repeat champions of NFL since New England a decade ago. However, it was not meant to happen this time. The game taught Seattle a lot of mental toughness, though. The game marked by emotions, records, thrill and awards. Therefore, that’s what we have: Super Bowl XLIX, Glendale, Arizona, University of Phoenix Stadium, February 1, 2015, New England Patriots – Seahawks 28-24.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Peer review for assignments about (Peripheral Nerve Stimulation by MR Assignment

Peer review for assignments about (Peripheral Nerve Stimulation by MR gradient coils) - Assignment Example Overview of the article Bottger’s paper, ‘Peripheral nerve stimulation by MR gradient coils,’ is organized into subsections with a well-outlined abstract and a conclusion. The abstract outlines the paper’s objective of discussing and understanding Peripheral nerve stimulation that results from application of MR gradient coils in imaging. The abstract also outlines the paper’s key contents such as occurrence of peripheral nerve stimulation, methods for reducing the occurrence, appropriate PNS thresholds that the body can sustain involved risks in the technology, and effects of the technology’s use. The author describes magnetic resonance as a powerful and significant tool for imaging and that can obtain high-level resolution without using ionizing radiation. The tool also helps in investigating organ function, to investigate vivo chemistry and to visualize the brain. The author also establishes the need for care in application of the technology because while high resolution images requires high strength pulse and powerful static magnetic fields, these increase chances of peripheral nerve stimulation and also risks care personnel within the imaging facility. The paper also seeks to define peripheral nerve stimulation, identify its causes and where it occurs, and discusses threshold values for imaging and strategies for reducing effects of peripheral nerve stimulation. Commendations The abstract offers a comprehensive overview of the paper and succeeds in communicating the article’s objective. It develops suspense by exploration of content headline but not actual information, a feature that can motivate a reader into the article. The author also uses simple and precise headings that are outlined conspicuously. Another outstanding element of the article is its attained credibility through reliance and acknowledgement of its sources of information. Reliability of offered information is another feature of the article be cause of consistency of offered information to other sources. Its argument that peripheral nerve stimulation causes pain, for example, is consistent with the observation that the technology may have irritable effects such as twitching of muscles on patients (Rummeny and Reimer 2009, p. 33). Schultz also supports the author’s position on causes of the stimulation, varying magnetic fields (2013, p. 4). Application of diagrams and tables also enhances the article’s ability to communicate to the audience. Affirmations A number of concerns, despite the positive attributes, however arise from the article’s content with respect to its aims and headings. Some of the article’s content is not consistent with its headings. The author does not seem to define PNS while the heading, ‘what is PNS?’ suggest the need for the definition. The audience anticipates an explicit or inferred definition but none appears. Like in the abstract, a definition of PNS is n ecessary to make the title relevant. The same concern arises with respect to the heading, ‘what are the causes of PNS’ because no explicit causes, except involved mechanism towards the stimulation, are offered. One of the possible responses would â€Å"changes at the neuromuscular junction or muscle level† (Tranquilli, Thurmon and Grimm 2013, p. 429). Significant inconsistency also exists between the abstract and headings, which communicates the author’

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Controllers for Marine Engineering Systems Essay - 1

Controllers for Marine Engineering Systems - Essay Example Time was calculated with that device by regulating the water level in a vessel and ascertaining the quantum of its flow out of it. (Australian Maritime College, department of maritime time engineering lecture notes on instrumentation and process control. (http://academic.amc.edu.au/hnguyen/IPC/IPC01-06.pdf, viewed on 23rd August , 2007) Development of instrumentation and control systems were very slowly till the Second World War. It progressed and accelerated with tremendous speed after the war. Initial progress was in single loop control systems. These contain a single feedback channel and this technology was elaborated since then for acquiring multi-loop systems In recent years marine vehicles are designed in swift progression. There are unmanned underwater vehicles, surface ships and high-speed crafts with integrated bridges. These marine vehicles and their engines are controlled with the aid of computer science. But designing and producing a computer-based automatic control system were challenging in marine control engineering till recently. Several types of control are used now. They are control applications in marine and offshore systems like CAMS (Control Applications in Marine Systems) and MCMC (Maneuvering and Control of Marine Crafts), maneuvering, control and ship positioning systems, robust and reliable control systems, optimization methods in marine systems and modeling, underwater vehicles and robotics, offshore systems, traffic guidance and control systems, fault tolerant control, detection and isolation in marine systems, engine and machinery control systems, machinery surveillance, condition monitoring and quality control systems, networking and IT for marine control. (http://academic.amc.edu.au/hnguyen/IPC/IPC01-06.pdf, page 1, viewed on 23rd August 2007). The history of automatic process control reveals that the PID controller heralded all the mechanical devices used in the marine engineering. Earlier these mechanical controllers used a lever, spring and a mass. Compressed air activated the system and 2 such pneumatic controllers were treated as the industry standard. Times have changed then and likewise the techniques. Proportional Integral Derivative, abbreviated to PID controller is a generic control loop feedback mechanism. It is extensively applied in industrial control systems. This controller rectifies errors occurred between a measured process variable and a set-point by calculating and outputting corrective action which could adjust the process. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PID_controller, viewed on 23rd August, 2007). The calculation is based on three elements viz., the Proportional, the Integral and Derivative values. The first one considers the reaction to the present error, while the second regulates the reaction on the sum of recent errors and the third determines the reaction to the rate of error change. The sum of these three is taken as output to a control element. By adjusting the proportional, the integral and the derivative values, the PID can give control action for specific requirements.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Cool Quest Video and Reflection Essay Example for Free

Cool Quest Video and Reflection Essay Psychology could influence consumer behavior in many ways. Based on the video, I learned that the brain responds accordingly to what one perceives as â€Å"cool†. With that being said, I’m pretty sure that there are studies that gear towards tis feature of the mind. And companies like Apple use these studies when inventing their newest products. For example, technology has evolved immensely in recent years. When Apple began inventing their latest IPhone, I’m pretty sure that they thought about what would appeal to their consumers. And I’m positive that psychology had a huge impact on their decisions. In my opinion, there a lot of other areas of society that could be impacted by psychology. Such areas influenced are career choices, fashion, and social habits like drinking and smoking to name a few. All of these societal aspects described can be influenced by different areas of the mind. And we all know that in general today’s societies seek to be accepted by all. I know for me the nature versus nurture theory is a huge influence on different aspects of my life. I was raised by a single parent in a poverty stricken neighborhood. My mother didn’t graduate high school. So education is big for me, which would lead to a better career choice. What is fashionably acceptable or not can be related to the video because everyone has a different perception of what is cool or not.